Know Your State & UTs I UPSC


Key Facts

  • A state in the south-eastern coastal region of India
  • 7th largest state by area and 10th most populous state
  • Bordered by Telangana to the north-west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Odisha to the north-east, Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east.
  • It has the second longest coastline in India after Gujarat
  • 1st state to be formed on a linguistic basis
  • Official language is Telugu; one of the classical languages of India, the fourth most spoken language in India and the 11th-most spoken language in the world
  • Satish Dhawan Space Centre
  • Andhra Pradesh is producing maximum amount of Virginia tobacco.
  • Tummalapalle mines are rich source of Uranium
Physical Characteristics
  • Coastal Plains, Eastern Ghats, Deccan Plateau, Central Plateau
  • Forests can be divided into four major biotic provinces: Deccan Plateau- 53%, Central Plateau- 35%, Eastern Highlands- 11%, East Coastal Plains- 1%
Natural Vegetation
  • Tropical Dry forest & Tropical shrub land.
  • Limestone, Oil and Natural Gas reserves, Maganese, Iron ore, Asbestos, Ball clay, Gold, Diamonds, Graphite, Silica, Dolomite, Quartz etc.
  • Most deposit and production of Mica in India found here.
  • It has about one third of India’s limestone reserves.
  • Krishna (flowing from Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra to Andhra Pradesh).
  • Godavari (flowing from Brahmagiri Mountain in Maharashtra to Antardevi into the Bay of Bengal).
  • Nagarjuna Sagar Dam (Krishna River) – one of the largest in Asia, Prakasham Barrage (Krishna River), Srisailam Dam (Krishna River), Telugu Ganga, Polavaram Project, Somasila Reservoir (Nellore district), Thandava dam (visaka district), Yeleru Reservoir (East Godavari), Kalyani Reservoir (Chittoor)
  • Visakhapatnam, Kakinada and Machlipatnam.
Important Festivals
  • Rama Navami, Maha Sivaratri, Triputi Brahmosavam, Ugadi (Telugu New Year), Vinayaka Chavithi
  • Vasanthotsavam, Attla Taddi
Historical Sites
  • Borra Caves, Adoni Fort, Golconda Fort, Talakona waterfall, Victoria Museum
  • Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Bugga Ramalingeswara Swamy
Dance forms
  • Kuchipudi (official dance form of the state)
  • Butta Bommalu (Puppet show dance)
  • Veeranatyam (dance is a dance of anger)
  • Lambadi (traditional tribe dance), Harikatha
  • Dhimsa (tribal dance of tribes in Araku hill station)
  • Tappeta Gullu.
  • Kolattam is the dance of stick
  • Bhamakalpam (originated for the pure Kuchipudi- love fight between Krishna and his wives)
  • Burrakatha-Three or more people join together to recite a story with rhythm and small songs
Art forms
  • Muggulu floor painting, Tirupati painitng., Textile Art-Kalamkari, Nirmal Painting
Geographical Indications
  • Banaganapalle Mangoes, Bandar laddu, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Srikalahasti Kalamkari, Tirupati Laddu, Uppada Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari.
Protected Areas
  • Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger reserve (India’s largest Tiger Reserve), Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary (India’s second-largest lagoon; Largest is Chilka).
  • Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, Rollapadu Bird Sanctuary, Kondakarla Bird Sanctuary, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Mangrove forests), Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Atapaka Bird Sanctuary – Kolleru Lake
  • Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Gundla Brahmeswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Penusila Narasimha Wildlife Sanctuary, Gundla Brahmeswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara National Park
Ramsar Site
  • Kolleru lake
State Animal /Bird /Flower /Tree
  • Blackbuck (Indian antelope) / Indian Roller / Lotus / Vepa (Neem)
  • Andh, Bagata, Chenchu, Gadabas, Kondhsm Porja and Sawara
Hydroelectric power plants
  • Srisailam Dam on Krishna River
  • Nagarjuna Sagar Dam on Krishna River
GI Tags
  • Srikalahasthi Kalamkari, Kondapalli Bommallu, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Budithi Bell & Brass Metal Craft, Andhra Pradesh Leather Puppetry, Uppada Jamdani Sarees, Tirupathi Laddu, Guntur Sannam Chilli, Venkatagiri Sarees, Bobbili Veena, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Bandar Laddu, Udayagiri Wooden Cutlery, Durgi Stone Carvings, Etikoppaka Toys, Allagadda Stone Carving, Araku Valley Arabica Coffee 


Key Facts

  • Land of Dawn-Lit Mountains-Northeast State, “Orchid Paradise”, “Land of Sunrise” and “Paradise of Botanist”.
  • Border State- Assam and Nagaland to the south
  • international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east, and a disputed border with China in the north at the McMahon Line
  • Shares 1,129 km border with China’s Tibet Autonomous Region
  • Capital-Itanagar & largest of 7 Sister states of NE
  • Anjaw is the eastern most district of India
  • Patkai Bum hills act as a natural barrier between Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar.
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) is required for Indian citizen to enter Arunachal Pradesh.
  • A new subspecies of hoolock gibbon has been described from the state which has been named as the Mishmi Hills hoolock gibbon
International boundaries
  • Myanmar (440Km) in east, Bhutan (160Km) in west and China (1030Km) north of McMohan Line
  • Separated from China by McMohan line, which is disputed.

·         Shares 1,129 km border with China’s Tibet Autonomous Region

Geographical Features
  • Mountain ranges
  • Green forests
  • Deep river valleys (The Kameng, The Subansiri, The siang, The Lohit and the Tirap)
  • All these rivers are fed by snows.
  • River Siang in Tibet called as Tsangpo and Brahmaputra in India.
  • Beautiful Plateaus
  • Himalayan Ranges running from nort-south
  • Tropical, Sub-tropical, Pine, Temperate and Alpine
Mountain Ranges
  • Dafla Hills, Miri Hills, Abor Hills, Mishmi Hills, Patkai Range
Mountain Pass
  • Bombdila Pass (India-Tibet)
  • Bum La Pass (India-Tibet)
  • Tunga Pass (India-Tibet)
  • Dihang Pass (India-Tibet)
  • Petroleum, Coal, Copper Ore, Gold & Pyrites, Limestone and Marble, Dolomite, Graphite.
  • Ganga / Gekar Sinyi
  • Kameng, Subansiri, Siang (Brahmaputra), Dibang, Lohit and Noa Dihing
  • Dibang Dam (India’s largest hydro project)
  • Rangandi Dam
  • Monpa people in the west, Tani people in the center, Tai people in the east, and Naga people in the south
  • Others- Abor, Apatanis, Khamti, Momba, Singphos, Khambas, Mishmis, Nyishi, Wancho
Protected Areas
  • Dehang Bebang (Musk Deer, Mishmi Takin), Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary & Tiger reserve (Famous for Hornbill, Talle Wildlife Sanctuary, Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary, Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary, Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary, Mouling National Park, Namdapha National Park, Mauling National Park
State Bird /Animal /Tree /Flower ·         Great Hornbill / Mithun (Gayal) /Hollong /Foxtail Orchid
Important festivals
  • Gokum Gompa, Siang River festival, Losar, Tamladu, Solung, Nyokum, Buddha Mahotsava, Boori-boot, Nyokum, Dree
  • Ponung, Monpa, Igu, Popir
GI Tags
  • Idu Mishmi Textiles, Arunachal Orange


Key Facts

  • State of NE India
  • South of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys
  • State Border- Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east;  Meghalaya , Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor
  • Known for Assam tea and Assam silk
  • Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famed for its feral horses
International Boundaries ·         Bhutan, Bangladesh
Geographical Features
  • High land and Plains, Great river valleys of the Brahmaputra, Brahmaputra drains in Assam, hydro-geomorphic due to oxbow lakes
  • Tropical Monsoon & Tropical Rainforests
Protected Areas
  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary, Sonai Rupa Wildlife Sanctuary, Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary, East Karbi Anglong Sanctuary, Bura-Chapori Wildlife Sanctuary, Chakrasila Wildlife Sanctuary, Pani Dihing Bird Sanctuary, Dibru-Saikhowa (Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts), Manas NP & TR
  • Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park, Orang (Rajiv Gandhi) National Park
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park
  • Majuli- India’s first district that is a river island
  • Brahmaputra and Barak
  • Haflong lake: Natural lake on the only hill station of Assam. The Hill station is regarded as ‘Scotland of Assam’.
  • Hajong Lake: It is also known as the Tortoise Lake which is situated on the Langting Mupa Reserve. On the bank of this lake third annual tortoise festival was held
  • Dimasa, Karbi, Lalung, Bodo, Khampti, Rabha, Deori, Chamka
  • Bohag Bihu, Elephant Festival, Dehing Patkai, Tea Festival, Ambubachi Mela, Me-Dam-Me-Phi, Jonbeel Mela, Baisaghu
Dance Forms
  • Bihu, Sattriya, Oja-Pali, Jhumar, Deodhani Nritya, Ali Ali Ligang, Barpeta Bhortal, Bagurumba
  • Petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar
Irrigation and Power
  • Chandrapur Thermal Project, Nampru Thermal Project, Taipaimukh Dam Project, Few Mobile Gas Turbine, Mini Hydro-electric Project
Oil refineries
  • Digboi (Asia’s first and world’s second refinery), Guwahati, Bongaigaon and Numaligarh
Traditions /Art Forms etc
  • Mekhela Sador indigenous traditional Assamese dress
  • Xorai is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect 
  • Jaapi a traditional Assamese headgear or hat offered to guests
  • Kuhila koth is a famous handicraft mostly done in Batadrava area of Nagaon district
Ramsar Sites
  • Deepor Beel
Rivers ·         Brahmaputra & its tributaries:

·         Left=Dibang River, Lohit River, Dhansiri, Kolong

·         Right=Kameng River, Manasarover, Beki,Raidak, Jaldhaka, Teesta, Subansiri

·         Barak River (Part of Surma-Meghna River System)

·         Kusiyara River

GI Tags ·         Muga Silk, Assam (Orthodox), Assam Karbi Anglong Ginger, Joha Rice, Tezpur Litchi, Boka Chaul, Kaji Nemu


Key Facts

  • Eastern part of India
  • Third-largest state by population and twelfth-largest by territory
  • Contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south
  • World’s third-most populous subnational entity
  • Main cultural regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur
  • Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east
  • 4th largest producer of vegetables & the 8th largest producer of fruits


Tribes ·         Agaria, Baiga, Bedia, Gond, Gorait, Khond, Kora, Munda, Savar, Kawar, Kol, Tharu
Rivers ·         Ganga, Saryu-Yamuna, Gandak, Kosi, Panar, Pun-Pun, Saura, Bagmati, Ghagra, Koshi, Son, Mahananda, Sapt Koshi, Bhutahi Balan
Art Forms
  • Madhubani /Mithila painting
  • Madhubani’s marsh sikki
  • Grass is used to make baskets, dolls, toys etc.
  • Sujini Kantha embroidery is a specialization of Bihar
Dance Forms
  • Jat-Jatin dance of the Mithila region, Bidesia, the songs of Vidyapati, Chau Tribal dances, Jhijhian dance, Kajari dance, Sohar-khilouna dance, Jhumeri dance
  • Chatth Puja, Sama-Chakeva, Ramnavami, Makar-Sankranti, Bihula, Madhushravani
State Flower /Tree /Bird /Animal
  • Genda (Marigold) / Peepal / House Sparrow / Bullock
  • Kanwar Lake, Baraila Lake, Kusheswar nath Lake, Udaypur lake
  • Nagi Dam, Nakti Dam (Man-Made)
World Heritage site
  • Mahabodhi temple complex at Bodh Gaya
  • Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda
Ramsar Sites
  • Kanwar Taal or Kabartaal Lake
Protected Areas
  • Valmiki National Park (18th Tiger Reserve of India)
  • Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Wild Life Sanctuary, Bhimbandh Wild Life Sanctuary, Gautam Budha Wild Life Sanctuary, Kanwarjheel Wild Life Sanctuary, Kaimur Wild Life Sanctuary, Kusheshwar Asthan Bird Wild Life Sanctuary, Nagi Dam Wild Life Sanctuary, Nakti Dam Wild Life Sanctuary, Pant (Rajgir) Wild Life Sanctuary, Udaipur Wild Life Sanctuary, Valmiki Wild Life Sanctuary, Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Wild Life Sanctuary
GI Tags
  • Madhubani Paintings, Applique (Khatwa) Work of Bihar, Sujini Embroidery, Sikki Grass Products, Bhagalpur Silk, Applique (Khatwa) Work, Bhagalpuri Zardalu, Katarni Rice, Magahi Paan, Shahi Litchi, Silao Khaja


Key Facts

  • State of Central India and formerly part of Madhya Pradesh
  • Borders 7 states – Uttar Pradesh to the north, Madhya Pradesh to the northwest, Maharashtra to the southwest, Jharkhand to the northeast, Odisha to the east, and Telangana and Andhra to the south
  • Only tin producing State in India.
  • The state has 16% of the total coal deposits of India.
  • Pithora paintings are a common traditional art form.
  • Rice bowl of central India
  • Produces 50% of the country’s total cement production
  • Highest output of coal in the country with second-highest reserves
  • Third in iron ore production and first in tin production
Rivers ·         Mahanadi, Indravati, Son, Pain, Hasdeo, Sabari, Narmada, Rihand
State Animal /Bird/Tree ·         Wild Water Buffalo / Hill myna / Sal
Geography ·         North lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area

·         Eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east–west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain

Climate ·         Tropica / hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer
Protected Areas
  • Kanger valley, Guru Ghasidas, Kankerghati, Indravati TR, Achanakmar Tiger reserve
  • Achanakmar – Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve, Badalkhol Sanctuary
  • Sitanadi wildlife Sanctuary, Barnawapara Sanctuary, Semarsot Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bhairamgarh wildlife Sanctuary, Bhoramdeo Sanctuary
  • Gomarda Sanctuary, Pamed Sanctuary
  • Panthi, Raut Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang, Bhatra Naat, Rahas, Raai, Maao-Pata and Soowa
  • Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community
  • Pandavani is a folk ballad form
  • Raut Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of Yaduvanshis
  • Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in Chhattisgarh is also known as Parrot Dance
  • Sohar, Bihav, Pathoni, Pandavani
Arts & Crafts
  • Iron crafting
  • Lost wax method of metal casting
  • Bhittivhitras or murals
  • “Kosa silk” and “Dhokra or Bell metal art”
  • Pithora paintings are a common traditional art form
  • Bastar Dussehra/ Durga Puja, Bastar Lokotsa, Madai Festival, Rajim Kumbh Mela/ Rajim Lochan Mohatsov, Pakhanjore Mela (Nara Narayan Mela), Bhoramdeo Festival, Goncha Festival, Teeja Festival, Champaran Mela, Kajari, Narayanpur Mela, Sheorinarayan
  • Gonds, Halba, Munda, Oraon, Karku, Bapchi, Kondh, Bhattra
GI Tags
  • Bastar Blacksmith, Bastar Dhokra (Both Handicraft & Logo), Bastar woodwork, Champa silk saree


Key Facts

  • State on the southwestern coast of India
  • region known as the Konkan, and geographically separated from the Deccan highlands by the Western Ghats
  • surrounded by the Indian states of Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast
  • smallest state by area and its fourth-smallest by population
  • The Marmagao harbour is virtually at the confluence of Mandovi and Zuari rivers.
  • Sonsogor is the highest peak of Goa which lies on western ghats.
  • Dr Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is located on Chorao island of Goa. It is the most important Bird Sanctuary of India. It is named after Dr Salim who was a famous Ornithologist.
  • Highest Mountain-Sonsogad in the Sahyadri range of the Western Ghats
State Animal /Bird /Tree ·         Gaur / Flame-throated bulbul/ Matti (Asna)
Tribes ·         Dhodia, Dubla, Naikda, Siddi, Varli, Kunbi, Gawda, Velip
Climate ·         Tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification
Protected Areas
  • Bondla wildlife Sanctuaries, Mollem National Park, Dr.Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
  • Cotigoa wildlife Sanctuaries, Bhagwan Mahavir wildlife Sanctuaries
  • Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal
  • Shigmo dance, Manddo, Durpod, Dhangar, Fugdi, Ghodemodni, Goff, Kunbi, Mando, Muslam Khel, Perni Jagar, Dhalo-Dhalo
  • Natak, Tiatr (most popular) and Jagor
  • Perni Jagor is the ancient mask dance-drama
  • Carnival, Feast of St. Francis Xavier, Shigmotsav, Bonderam Festival
World Heritage sites
  • Churches and convents of Old Goa
  • Mayem, Carambolim, Netravali, Kesarval
Sea Ports
  • Marmugao, Dona Paula, and Panjim
  • Salaulim dam, Cumbarjua canal
GI Tags ·         Moira banan, Harmal chilli, Feni, Khola chilli, Khajem (kaddio boddio)


Key Facts

  • A state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi) – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula
  • Fifth-largest Indian state by area and the ninth-largest state by population.
  • bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu to the south, Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west.
  • Ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world’s first seaports
  • Gir Forest National Park is home to the only wild population of the Asiatic lion in the world.
  • Locally known as Jewel of the West.
  • Shale Gas is found in the area of Cambay basin.
  • Sadhu bet – Statue of unity. It is the statue of Sardar Patel.
  • Gandhinagar is the greenest capital city in the whole of Asia.
  • Gujarat is the only home of Asiatic Lions.
  • Gujarat is the only present natural habitat of lions outside Africa.
  • 100% of Gujarat’s 18,000 villages have electricity connection.
  • Gujarat has the largest OFC network of more than 50,000 km.
  • The British East India Company set its first footsteps in Surat in 1818.
  • Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India.
  • The world’s largest ship breaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang.
  • More than 8 out of the 10 of the world’s diamonds are processed in the city Surat in Gujarat.
  • Surat is considered as the hub of diamond business in the world after Antwerp, Belgium.
  • Gujarat International Finance Tec-City or GIFT is a central business district between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. It is India’s first International Financial Services Centre.
  • Surat – also known as Diamond city of India.
  • AMUL (Anand Milk United Limited)-Founded in 1946 to stop the exploitation by middlemen in Anand.
  • Verghese Kurien, who was entrusted the task of running the dairy from 1950, is also known as Father of White revolution.
  • India’s first Bullet train project was launched between Ahmedabad & Mumbai with the help of Japan.
  • It has largest coastline in India approx. 1600Km. amongst states of India.
  • Dahej is chemical port.
  • Largest district in the country is Kuchchh and it is also the western most district of India. Tidal Plant is situated in Kuchchh.
  • Bhuj Solar Pond is first large-scale solar pond in India.
  • Black Hill (Kalo Dungar) is the highest point in Kachchh.
  • Gujarat accounts for about 80% of the diamonds processed & 90% of the diamonds exported from India
  • Mehsana, Kalol & Dholka – Oil resources are found here
  • Gulf of khambat & Gulf of Kutch – have huge potentional of generating Tidal energy because of huge variation in tidal range.
  • Gujarat also has huge potential for wind energy and solar power generation.
  • The Sabarmati is the largest river in Gujarat followed by the Tapi.
  • The Narmada has the longest course through the state.
  • The Sardar Sarovar Project is built on it, one of the major rivers of peninsular India where it is one of only three major rivers that run from east to west – the others being the Tapi and the Mahi
State Animal / Bird/ Tree/ Flower ·         Asiatic Lion /Greater Flamingo /Mango /Golgotha
Rivers ·         Luni, Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapti, Banas, Saraswati, Damanganga

  • Surat – Tapi
  • Ahmedabad – Sabarmati
  • Gandhinagar – Sabarmati
  • Baruch – Narmada
Geography ·         Ranges from deserts, Scrublands, Grasslands, deciduous forests, Wetlands to mangroves, coral reefs, estuaries and gulfs

  • Coastal region
  • Semi-arid Kachchh region towards west
  • Kathiawar Peninsula (Saurashtra)
  • Alluvial Plain
Mountain ranges
  • Garda hills, Barda hills, Gir range, Rajpipla hills, Chhota Udaipur hills, Black hills, Mandav hills
Arts and crafts
  • Bandhani or tie-and-dye fabric
  • Woven Patola fabric
  • Rich embroidery by Rabari tribals
  • Soof embroidery
Dance, Drama & Music forms
  • Dandiya Raas, Garba dance, Tippani, Padhar Dance, Bhavi Folk drama, Hallisaka, Dangi Nrita
Protected Areas
  • Gir National Park (Lion, Leopard, Chital, Chausinga, Hyena, Sambar, Chinkara, Herpetofauna, Crocodiles and birds).
  • Vansda National Park (Leopard, Hyena, Chital, Chausinga, Birds, Herpetofauna)
  • Black Buck National Park (Blackbuck, Wolf, Houbara bustard, Harrieres, Lesser florican, Herpetoufaua)
  • Marine National Park (Sponges, Corals, Jelly fish, Sea horse, Octopus, Oyster, Pearl oyster, Starfish, Lobster, Dolphi, Digong, Waterfowls)
  • Great runn of Kuch biosphere reserve
  • Asiatic Lions in Gir forest, Wild Ass in the Rann of Kutchh, Indian bustards in bird reserves, four horned Antelope and Black Buck are among many animals and birds protected in Gujarat
  • The Whale Shark breed on the coasts of Gujarat
  • Okha is a place where dugong is found
  • Gulf of Kutchh is India’s first Marine National Park
  • Dry deciduous forests Gir
  • Majestic grasslands Velavadar
  • Vast landscapes Little Rann of Kutch
  • Wetland habitats Nalsarovar
  • Marine ecosystems Pirotan Islands
  • Rich moist deciduous forests Dense forests of the Dangs
Ramsar Sites
  • Nalsarovar Bird sanctuary
Important Projects
  • Sardar Sarovar Project – Narmada river
  • Kakrapa Project – Tapi river
  • Mahi Project – Mahi Project
  • Ukai Project – Tapi river
World Heritage Sites
  • Rani-Ki-Vav, Patan
  • Champaner-Pavagarh Archeological Park
  • Historic city of Ahmedabad
GI Tags ·         Sankheda Furniture, Agates of Cambay, Kutch Embroidery, Tangaliya Shawl, Surat Zari Craft, Gir Kesar Mango, Bhalia Wheat, Kachchh Shawls, Patan Patola, Sankheda Furniture (Logo), Kutch Embroidery (Logo), Agates of Cambay (Logo), Jamnagari Bandhani, RajKot Patola, Pethapur Printing Blocks

·         Mata Ni Pachedi-Religious textile folk art featuring Mother Goddess  


Key Facts

  • A state in India located in the northern part
  • carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis.
  • Bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab.
  • Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state, and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of the NCR
  • The Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old
  • Haryana was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty.
  • Kurukshetra, the scene of the epic battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana.
  • Haryana is the largest exporter of Basmati rice to the overseas market.
  • Lowest child sex ratio (0-6 years) – (834) amongst states.
  • There are no Schedule Tribes notified in Haryana.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Black Buck / Black Francolin /Peepal /Lotus
Geographical division
  • Haryana as a whole is a plain
  • Shivalik mountain range in the northeast
  • Aravalli mountain eanges in the southern Haryana
  • Yamuna-Ghaggar basin, creating the biggest portion of the state
  • Semi-arid sandy plateaus in southwest
  • Morni Hills area of Panchkula district, is highest point
  • Yamuna, Saraswati, Ghaggar, Markanda, Tangri, Chautang
  • Western Yamuna Canal, Sutlej Yamuna link canal (from Sutlej river tributary of Indus), and Indira Gandhi Canal
Major dams
  • Kaushalya Dam in Panchkula district, Hathnikund Barrage and Tajewala Barrage on Yamuna in Yamunanagar district, Pathrala barrage on Somb river in Yamunanagar district, ancient Anagpur Dam near Surajkund in Faridabad district, and Ottu barrage on Ghaggar-Hakra River in Sirsa district
  • Continental character
  • Very hot in Summer and Markedly in winter
  • Pleasant months of spring
  • Badhkal, Brahma Sarovar, Karna Lake, Sannihit Sarovar, Tilyar Lake
Protected Areas
  • Sultanpur National Park, Kalesar National Park, Abubshehar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Shikargarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinchilla Wildlife Sanctuary, Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Morni Hills (Khol-Hi-Raritan) Wildlife Sanctuary, Nahar Wildlife Sanctuary
Fairs & Festivals
  • Surajkund International Crafts Mela, Mango Mela, Kurukshetra Mahotsav, The Pinjore Heritage Festival
  • Phag, Dhamal, Ratvai
Art Forms
  • Phulkari and Shisha embroidery


Key Facts

  • A state in northern part
  • Situated in the Western Himalayas and one of the eleven mountain states
  • borders with the Union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the north, and the states of Punjab to the west, Haryana to the southwest, and Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh to the south
  • international border to the east with the Tibet Autonomous Region in China
  • Solan – Mushroom Capital of India.
  • Most of the state lies on the foothills of the Dhauladhar Range
  • Reo Purgyil (6816 mt.) is the highest mountain peak of state.
  • The State is the sole holder of country’s rock salt resources
  • Kangra Paintings- Miniature painting.
  • Manikaran is famous for its hot springs.
  • Manikaran Geothermal field, Parbati Valley-Kulu district.
  • Kasol is famous by the nickname of ‘Mini Israel’ perhaps because of its maximum tourists being that of Israeli origin and so most of the shops and inns to bear hoarding in the Hebrew language.
  • Himachal Pradesh is the land of deities. Almost every village has its own Gods and Goddesses which the local people rigorously worship.
  • Shimla is the only place in the whole of Asia to sport a natural ice-skating rink.
State Animal /Bird /Flower /Tree ·         Snow Leopard /Western Tragopan /Pink Rhododendron /Deodar
Rivers ·         Ravi, Beas, Chenab, Yamuna, Sutlej
Geographical Division
  • Outer Himalaya (Shiwaliks)
  • Lesser Himalaya (Himachal)
  • Greater Himalaya (Himadri)
Tribes ·         Bhot, Bodh, Beta, Doma, Gaddi, Jad, Lamba, Pangwala, Dagis, Khasas, Koilis, Halis, Dhaugris, Dasa, Kinnars, Kirats
Protected Areas
  • Sechu Tuan Nalla, Chamba, Rupi Bhaba, Kinnaur, Pong Dam Sanctuary, Kangra, Dhauladhar, Kangra, Renuka-Sirmaur, Gamgul-Siyabehi-Chamba, Kibber-Lahaul & Spiti
  • Great Himalayan National Park, Pin Valley National Park, Inderkilla National Park
  • Khirganga National Park, Simbalbara National Park
Ramsar Sites
  • Chandertal, Pong dam, Renuka
  • Suraj Tal, Chander Tal, Gobind Sagar, Dal, Beas Kund, Mani Mahesh, Khajjar, Renuka, Rewalsar
Important Passes
  • Rohtang Pass, Bara-Lacha La, Shipki La, Pin-Parvati Pass, Kunzum Pass
World Heritage Sites
  • Kalka-Shimla Railways
  • Great Himalayan National Park
  • Kinnauri, Pahari, Hindi, Punjabi
Buddhist Pilgrimages
  • Rewalsar, Guru Ghantal Monastery, Kardang Monastery, Shashur monastery, Tayul Gompa, Kye Monastery, Thang Yug Gompa, Dhankar Monastery, Tabo Monastery
  • Fulaich, Pori, Manali Winter carnival, Halda, Dechhang, Phagli, Gochi, Lossar-Tibetan New Year, Phulaich Festival
Dance & Music forms
  • Mala dance, Rakshas dance, Chham dance, Kulli Nati, Kayang, Bnayangchu, Jataru Kayang, Chohara, Gugga dance, Losar Shona Chuksam, Ghurehi
  • Kullu Naati
Arts & Crafts
  • Basholi and Kangra style Pahari paintings
  • Kullu Shawls, Woollen caps, Chamba Rumal (Kangra style embroidery cloth)
Power Plants
  • Bassi Hydroelectric Project (Kullu), Larji Hydroelectric Project (Shimla), Girinagar Hydel Project (Palampur), Binwa Hydel Project (Kinnaur), Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna (Mandi)
  • Baner and Neugal Project (Kangra), Andhra Hydel Project (Rohru – Shimla), Rongtong Hydel Project (Lahaul-Spiti), Nathpa Jhakri Project


Key Facts

  • region administered by India as a union territory
  • After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution in 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, with effect from 31 October 2019
  • Region of Jammu and Kashmir is separated by the Line of Control from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north
  • Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962
  • lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh
  • Dachigam National Park – Srinagar – is best known as the home of the hangul, or Kashmir stag (state Animal).
  • Hemis National Park – Ladakh- famous for Snow Leopard, Asiatic ibex, Argali (Great Tibetian Sheep).
  • Kishtwar National Park is famous for Himalayan Snow Cock and brown bear.
  • Kazinag National Park is famous for Markhor (Capra falconeri), Himalayan Musk Deer (Maschus crysogater)
  • India produces the finest Pashmina (Cashmere) wool in the world, the main and best quality coming from the Changthang plateau of Ladakh region of J&K State.
  • Pashmina wool is produced by Changra (Pashmina) goat in Ladakh and Chegu breed of goat in the eastern parts of Himalayas.
  • Basohli is famous worldwide for Basohli painting.
  • Asia’s largest Tulip Garden is in Srinagar
  • Banihal-Qazigund rail link has India’s longest railway tunnel (11Km approx)
  • Cold Desert Cultural Landscape of India is situated in the Himalayas and stretches from Ladakh (J&K) in the north to Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh) in the south. • Shikaras -traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Valley.
  • China-Pakistan Economic corridor (CPEC) – passes through Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan occupied kashmir to which India has objection. That is one of the major hindrances in India joining OBOR.
  • The Shanti Stupa is white-colored domed-shaped structure, located in Chandspa which looks extremely beautiful during night when it is illuminated. This peace pillar was built a ‘peace sect’ of Japanese Buddhist organization to celebrate the completion of 2500 years of Buddhism and for the promotion of world peace. It was inaugurated by His Holiness, the Dalai Lama in 1985. This pillar is known for its gilt panels depicting the life stories of Lord Buddha.
  • The hangul or Kashmiri stag is the only species of European red deer found in India.
  • In Ladakh, they believe in Bon which is an animistic religion in which the forces of nature are worshipped.
  • The biggest attraction of the Dal Lake are the houseboats that can be seen floating there.
  • The Mughal Gardens of Srinagar is a popular tourist attraction.
  • Kashmir is also known for its traditional crafts and has some of the best handicrafts in the country; carpets, shawls, paper mache and walnut wood craft to name a few.
  • Kalhana, the first Indian history writer, gave a vivid account of the history of Kashmir before the 10th century AD.
  • The greatest Muslim king of early medieval age in Kashmir was Zain-ul-Abidin, who ascended the throne in AD 1420 and ruled up to 1470.
  • In 1587, Akbar annexed Kashmir into his vast empire.
  • Jahangir, son of Akbar and next Mughal ruler, visited Kashmir 13 times and created two beautiful gardens on the bank of Dal Lake, namely, the Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh.
  • In 1819, the Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed this region, but their empire remained in place only for 27 years.
  • Ladakh, also known as “Little Tibet”
  • Urdu written in the Persian script is the official language of the state.
  • Kawa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilly winter climate of Kashmir.Siachen Glacier is 70 km (43 mi) long making it the longest Himalayan glacier.
  • Ranbir Canal has the largest irrigation network of the State of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • The Martand Canal is one of the oldest canals of Jammu and Kashmir State.
  • Wood from Kashmir is used to make high quality cricket bats known as Kashmir willow
  • State has maximum number of Ramsar sites (4) in India
  • The Indus Waters Treaty was signed on September 19, 1960. It was brokered by the World Bank.
  • Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.
  • The name Srinagar means the “City of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth”. It was founded by Ashoka the Great.
  • The present city of Srinagar was built by Pravarsena II adjoining the old city.
  • India’s first floating post office is in Kashmir.
  • Important Articles: Article 370 & 35A
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Hangul / Black-necked crane /Chinar /Lotus
Rivers ·         Chenab, Jhelum, Indus, Zanskar, Suru, Nubra, Shyok, Kishan Ganga, Ravi, Tawi
Lakes ·         Dal Lake, Pangong Tso, Tso Moriri, Manasbal Lake, Sheshnag Lake
Geographical Features
  • Mountain ranges (Karakoram range, Laddhak range, Zanskar range, Pir Panjal)
  • Valleys (Kashmir valley, Tawi valley, Chenab valley, Poonch valley, Sind valley, Lidder valley)
  • Great Plains of Northern India
Natural Ecosystem
  • Sub-Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
  • Sub-Tropical Pine Forests
  • Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests
  • Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests
  • Alpine Forests
  • Forests in Cold Arid Zone
Protected Areas
  • Dachigam National Park (Srinagar), Kishtwar National Park (Kishtwar)
  • Hemis High Altitude National Park (Ladakh), Salim Ali National Park (Srinagar)
  • Kazinag National Park (Baramula), Changthang cold desert wildlife sanctuary
  • Karakoram (Nubra Shyok) wildlife sanctuary, Overa-Aru wildlife sanctuary
  • Gulmarg wildlife sanctuary, Lachipora wildlife sanctuary, Limber wildlife sanctuary, Surinsar-Mansar wildlife sanctuary, Hirpora wildlife sanctuary, Baltal-Thajwas wildlife sanctuary
  • Hokersar wildlife sanctuary, Jasrota wildlife sanctuary, Lachipora wildlife sanctuary
  • Nandini wildlife sanctuary, Rajparian wildlife sanctuary, Ramnagar Rakha wildlife sanctuary
  • Trikuta wildlife sanctuary
Ramsar Wetlands
  • Surinsar-Mansar Lakes, Hokersar, Wular Lake, Tsomoriri
Mountain Peaks
  • Golden Throne, Nanga Parbat, K2, Gasherbrum
  • Zoji La Pass, Changla Pass, Khardung La Pass, Shingo La, Banihal Pass
  • Saffron festival, Gurez Festival, Tihar, Navroz, Eid, Urs, Shab-e-Miraj, Bahumela, Shikara Festival, Jhiri Mela
Dances & Music forms
  • Kudd, Dogri/Pahari music, Hafixa, Bacha/Nagma dance, Rouff, Dhumal, Geetru
Folk Theatre
  • Bhand Pather
Arts & Craft Forms
  • Kar-i-Kalamdan or the art of making lacquered pen cases out of paper pulp is a famous handicraft industry; Kashida embroidery.
  • Basholi Painting, Calico Painting, Phoolkari
  • Carpets, Kashmiri Shawls, Wood craving, Chainstitch, Crewel, Papier-mache, Namda
  • Clay Moulding, Ladhak Carpet and Pashima Weaving, Thanka and Fresha Painting
Power Plants
  • Uri-I Hydroelectric Project (Jhelum)
  • Baglihar Stage- I Hydroelectric Project (Chenab)
  • Ranjit Sagar Dam Hydroelectric Project (Ravi)
  • Chutak Hydroelectric Project (Suru)
  • Nimmo – Bazgo Hydroelectric Project (Indus)
  • Samstangling
  • Hemis monastery
Important Minerals
  • Limestone, Gypsum, Marble, Coal, Magnesite, Borax, Graphite
GI Tags
  • Kashmiri carpet, Saffron (Lachcha, Mongra, Gucci), Kashmir Pashmina, Kashmir Sozani Art, Ear shawl, Kashmir Paper Machie, Kashmir Walnut Wood Carving, Khatamband


Key Facts

  • ‘The Land of Forests’) is a state in eastern India
  • border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east
  • Baidyanath Dham, Parasnath and Rajrappa are major religious sites
  • Accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India
  • Known as “a Goldmine of Mineral Resources”.
  • The highest point in Jharkhand is formed by the conical granite peak of Parasnath, which rises to 4,477 feet (1,365 metres) on the Hazaribag plateau.
  • Birsa Munda (1875-1900) and Sidho and Kanho are the legendary heroes of the tribals of this state who fought against the oppressive rule of the British government.
  • The soil in the Damodar valley is sandy, but heavier red soils are typical of the plateau regions.
  • The natural vegetation is deciduous forest.
  • Chota Nagpur is rich in sal (Shorea robusta), a valuable hardwood.
  • Bamboo and bhabar (an Indian fibre grass; Ischaemum angustifolium) from Chota Nagpur supply raw materials for paper manufacture.
  • The Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary is noted for its Bengal tigers.
  • Nearly two-fifths of the population of Jharkhand consists of various indigenous peoples classified as Scheduled Tribes.
  • Languages from the Indo-European family are the most widely spoken in Jharkhand.
  • Hazaribagh plateau is famous for mica.
  • Hundru Falls’ on Subarnarekha River.
  • State occupies 1st position in coal reserve, 2nd position in Iron ore reserve, 3rd position in Copper ore reserve, 7th position in Bauxite reserve and is the sole producer of prime coking coal.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Elephant /Koel /Sal /Palash
Rivers ·         Ghagra, Damodar, Barakar, Aon, Kosi, Mayurakshi, Son, Kharkai, North & South Koel,
Geographical divisions ·         North Chotanagpur, Palamau, South Chotanagpur, Kolhan, Santhal Pargana
Important Minerals ·         Uranium, Iron Ore, Mica, Bauxite, Granite, Gold, Silver, Graphite, Magnetite, Dolomite, Fireclay, Quartz, Fieldspar, Coal (32% of India), Iron, Copper (25%of India)

·         minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st) , mica (1st) , bauxite (3rd) , manganese , limestone , china clay, fire clay , graphite (8th) , kainite (1st) , chromite (2nd) , asbestos (1st) , thorium (3rd) , sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th)

Languages ·         Sadri, Khariya, Panchparagnia, Ho, Bangla, Hindi, Urdu, Santhali, Mundari, Kurukh, Khortha, Nagpuria, Malto, Karmali
  • Simple artisans — Mahli, Lohra, Karmali, Chik Baraik
  • Settled agriculturists — Santhal, Munda, Oraon, Ho, Bhumij.
  • Hunter-gatherer type — Birhor, Korwa, Hill Kharia
  • Shifting Agriculture — Sauria Paharia
Dams ·         Konar dam, Maithon dam, Tilaiya dam
Lakes /Waterfalls ·         Hundru falls, Jonha fall, Dassam fall, Panch Gagh fall, Hirni fall, Sila fall
Protected Areas
  • Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Koderma Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Lawalong Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahuadand Wildlife Sanctuary, Palkot Wildlife Sanctuary, Crocodile breeding Centre (Muta), Singhbhum Elephant Reserve, Topchachi Wildlife Sanctuary, Udhuwa Lake Bird Sancutary, Hazaribagh NP, Betla-Palamu NP
  • Chhath Puja, Karma, Sarhul, Sohrai, Jityya Bhaiya Dooj
  • Agni dance, Jhumar dance, Paika dance, Chhou dance, Santhal dance
GI Tags
  • Sohrai-Khowar paintings


Key Facts

  • A state in the south western region
  • largest state in South India and sixth largest in India
  • bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south
  • only southern state to have land borders with all of the other 4 southern Indian sister states
  • Bengaluru is also known as Silicon Valley of India
  • The state forms a part of the Deccan Plateau, it lies on the western edge of the plateau.
  • More than 90% of the gold produced in India is produced in the southern part of Karnataka.
  • Kolar Gold Fields (in Kolar District) and Hatti Gold Mines ( in Raichur District) are probably one of the oldest gold mines in the world; besides these, gold reserves have been found in Dharwad and Chitradurga also.
  • Raichur is also known for its silver deposits.
  • Hospet and Bellary are the two districts in the state where significant amount of Iron ore is excavated.
  • Karnataka also has the largest reserves of Manganese ore in the country.
  • Karnataka holds the top rank in producing raw silk, coffee, and sandalwood oriented goods.
  • Sharavan Belagola is famous for (approx 18 mt). high statue of Gomateshwara (Bahubali) is an important Jain pilgrimage centre.
  • It is largest Ragi producing state of India.
  • It produces maximum amount of raw silk.
  • Kaiga Nuclear power plant (Uttara Kannada) it is a PHWR (Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor) situated near river Kali.
  • Karnataka is a resource rich state having 78 vanadium ore, 74% Iron ore (Magnetite) 42% Tungsten.
  • Black Granite of Mysuru is very famous.
  • Karnataka also leads the nation in biotechnology. It is home to India’s largest biocluster, with 158 of the country’s 320 biotechnology firms being based here.
  • The state accounts for 75% of India’s floriculture, an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and ornamental plants worldwide.
  • The Haridasa movement of the sixteenth century contributed significantly to the development of Karnataka (Carnatic) music as a performing art form. Purandara Dasa, one of the most revered Haridasas
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Asian Elephant /Indian Roller /Sandalwood /Lotus
Tribes ·         Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis

·         Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis

·         Barda, Bavacha, Chodhara, Dubla, Gowdalu, Irulina

Rivers ·         Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Kabini, Krishna & Sharavathi
Physical division
  • The coastal Karnataka (includes the coastal district of Uttar Kannada, Udupi, Dakshin Kannada)
  • The Malnad (Comprising of western ghats)
  • The Maidan (Plain regions)
Principal geographical zones
  • The coastal region of Karavali and Tulu Nadu
  • The hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats
  • The Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan Plateau
  • Reserved forests, Protected forests, Unclassified forests, Villages forests, private forests
Geographical Features
  • Mountains (North to South) – Horti Hills – Jamkhandi hills – Bagalkot – Gokak – Badami – Babubudan – Closepet – Melagiris – Bilgiri range
Protected Areas
  • Bandipur National Park, Anshi National Park, Kudermukh National Park
  • Nagarahole National Park, Bannerghatta National Park, Mudumalai National Park
  • Bhimgad WLS, Rangayyanadurga WLS, Chincholi WLS, Gudejote (Sloth Bear sanctuary) WLS, Ramadevarabetta WLS, BRT wildlife Sanctuary, Bhadra Tiger Reserve
Biosphere Reserves
  • Nilgiri BR
Heritage Sites
  • Group of Monuments at Hampi
  • Group of monuments in Pattadakal
GI Tags
  • Mysore silk /Agarbati, Bidrivare, Channapatna toys, Rosewood inlays of Mysore, Nanjanagad banana, Mysore Vidya page, Coorg Orange, Kasuti embroidery, Mysore sandalwood soap/Oil, Ganjifa addresses of Mysore, Navalgund carpet, Carnatic brass utensils, Mysore Mallige, Udupi Mallige, Hadgali Mallige, Irakal saree, Molkalmuru saree, Coorg’s green cardamom, Dharwad Pedha Peppercorns, Devanhalli Papanas, Appamidi Mango, Kamalpur red banana, Sandur Lamani embroidery, Kinhal Toys, Udupi Saree, Sirsi betel nut
  • Kambla – Buffalo race, Ugadi – New Year day, Hampi festival, Vairamudi Brahmotsava, Tulu Sankramma, Gowri, Karaga, Mysore Dasara
Dance Forms
  • Yakshagana, Nagamandala, Kunitha, Krishna Parijatha, Bhootha Aradhane
  • Veeragase, Kamsale, Kolata and Dollu Kunitha
Art Forms
  • Gamaka is another classical music genre
  • Bidri; Chitragars’ wood chiselling; specialized card game Ganjifa.


Key Facts

  • A state on the southwestern Malabar Coast
  • Bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west
  • Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom
  • Kochi, earlier known as Cochin, is popularly known as ‘Queen of the Arabian Sea’ and is also called ‘Gateway to Kerala’.
  • Edakkal caves in Arnbukutty Moun am have petroglyphs or rock carvings and are believed to have been made by Neolithic men.
  • Believed to be the oldest of all martial art forms, Kalaripayattu gets its name from lalari’ or school and ‘payattu’ or practice.
  • Kocchi is World’s first airport completely powered by solar energy
  • Coconut produces 2/3 of total production in India (56% form Kozhikode)
  • Black pepper – 95% of country’s production
  • Accounts for 85% of the natural rubber in the country
  • Cardamom – Kerala’s share in the national production is 75% on upland mainly form Idukki, Wayanad
  • State with the highest literacy rate.
  • “Garden of Spices” or as the “Spice Garden of India”.
  • Vembanad Lake is designated as wet land under Ramsar convention.
  • Asthamudi Lake is a palm shaped lake with a unique wetland ecosystem and a Ramsar site.
  • Asthamudi Lake is the entrance to the famous backwaters of Kerala and the houseboat rides here are extremely famous.
  • Kannur-1st Zero landless district in the country
  • Malappuram – First e-literate district in the country
  • Alappuzha (Alleppey) is also known as ‘Venice of the East’
  • The Sasthamcotta Lake, the only major fresh water lake in the state is in Kollam District
  • The annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race takes place on the backwaters of Punnamada in Alappuzha.
  • The first state to be declared as “Complete Digital State”.
  • Wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats
  • Kerala’s coastal belt of Karunagappally is known for high background radiation from thorium-containing monazite sand.
  • Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India
  • The Kuttanad region, also known as The Rice Bowl of Kerala, has the lowest altitude in India
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Elephant / Great Indian Hornbill / Coconut / Kanikonna or Indian laburnum or amaltus
Geography ·         humid tropical rainforest climate with some cyclones

·         climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains

·         wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon

Tribes ·         Paliyan, Ulladan, Hill Pulaya, Rular, Kattunayakan, Koraga, Mudugar, Kadar
  • Sasthamkotta Lake, Vembanad Lake, Lakes of Alappuzha, Pookode Lake, Ashtamudi Lake, Punnamada Lake, Akkulam Lake, Mananchira, Veeran Puzha, Vellayani Lake, Paravur Kayal
  • Dharmadam Island, Kavvayi, Vypin, Gundu Island, Munroe Island, Valiyaparamba, Willingdon Island, Ezhumanthuruthu, Pulinkunnu
Protected Areas
  • Eravikulam National Park, Silent Valley National Park, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Begur Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Peechi Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Shenduruny Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Agasthyavanam Biological Park, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
  • Nilgiri, Agasthyamalai, Western Ghats
Ramsar Sites
  • Ashtamudi Wetland, Sasthamkotta lake, Vembanad Kol Wetland
  • Malampuzha Dam, Walayar Dam, Banasura Sagar Dam, Parambikulam Dam
  • Iron Ore, Bauxite, Silica Sand, Magnesite
GI Tags
  • Peacock jaggery, Tirur betel nut, Tirur Vettia, Wayand Robusta Coffee, Nilambur Teak, Aranmula Kannadi, Payyannur sacred ring, Nawar Bhat, Palakkadan Matta Bhat, Malabar Kalimiri, Alleppey Coir, Brass carved carvings, Screw pine carving, Maddalam of Pallakad, Pokkali rice, Green cardamom of Alleppey, Vakkalum pineapple, Balrampuram saree and cotton cloth, Kasargod saree, Central Travancore jaggery, Kuthampully Sarees and Fine Cotton Fabrics, Wayanad Jeerakasala Rice, Wayanad Gandhakasala Rice, Chendamangalam Dhoties, Kaipad Rice, Chengalikodan Nendran Banana
  • Onam, Thrissur Pooram, Sabarimala, Theyyam, Payippad Jelotsavam
  • Chavittunatakam, Kathakali, Kolkli, Koothu, Kutiyattam, Theyyam, Thirvathirakali, Ottamthullal, Chakyar Koothu, Mohiniyattam


Key Facts

  • State in central India
  • Second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population
  • Borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest
  • Also known as the ‘Tiger State’ 
  • Madhya Pradesh has the only working diamond mine in India.
  • Manganese and dolomite, key ingredient to iron and steel, found here.
  • Exotic varieties of dimensional stones i.e. marble, granite and flagstone available.
  • Largest producer of oilseeds and pulses in the country.
  • 25.3% of pulses and 36% Grams of total production of the country grown here.
  • Commercially favoured varieties of wheat and potato grown.
  • Largest producer of garlic and coriander.
  • Iron ore deposits are found in Balaghat, Jabalpur and Mandla districts.
  • The State of Madhya Pradesh also has rich reserves of coal in the northeastern and Satpura regions.
  • The state has the distinction of being the only diamonds producing state in India, with production in Panna and Chhatishgarh districts.
  • Mandsaur is the largest opium producing district in the country.
  • 31 % of the lands under forest cover with a largely unexploited species of rare, Valuable medicinal-herbal plants.
  • Largest producer of soyabean, pulses, gram, and garlic.
  • Third largest producer of cement in India.
  • Over 144 BCM of coal bed methane reserves available.
  • The state also produces about 45% of Bauxite in India with Jabalpur, Mandla, Shahdol, Satna and Rewa being the important Bauxite producing centers.
  • Pench and Kanha forests in the Satpura ranges, and Bandhavgarh in the Vindhyas, are all tiger reserves.
  • One half of Bhawani Mandi station on the Mumbai- Delhi railway line lies in Madhya Pradesh and the other half lies in Rajasthan.
  • The narrow and long Narmada-Son valley runs almost through the entire state from east to west making the area fit for agricultural activities.
  • The highest point in Madhya Pradesh is Dhupgarh, with an elevation of 1,350 m.
  • The River Narmada flows through a gorge of marble rocks in Bhedaghat, Jabalpur
  • Chanderi and Maheshwari is famous for traditional handicrafts and handloom clothes
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower /Fish ·         Swamp Deer (Barasingha) /Paradise Flycatcher / Banyan Tree /Madonna Lilly /Mahasheer
Climate ·         Subtropical climate
  • Black soil, most predominantly in the Malwa region, Mahakoshal and in southern Bundelkhand
  • Red and yellow soil, in the Baghelkhand region
  • Alluvial soil, in Northern Madhya Pradesh
  • Laterite soil, in highland areas
  • Mixed soil, in parts of the Gwalior and Chambal divisions
  • Bharia, Panika, Agariya, Baiga, Bhil, Gond, Halba, Korku, Mariya, Sahariya
Protected Areas
  • Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, Pench National Park and Dinosaur National Park, Dhar
  • Bori Wildlife Sanctuary, Bagdara Wildlife Sanctuary, Ghatigaon Wildlife Sanctuary – The Great Indian Bustard, Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary, Gandhisagar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary- Asiatic lions would be shifted here.
  • Karera Wildlife Sanctuary – The Great Indian Bustard, Ken Ghariyal Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kheoni Wildlife Sanctuary, Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary-1197 Sq.Km
  • Narsinghgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, N. Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary, Orchha Wildlife Sanctuary, Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Panpatha Wildlife Sanctuary, Phen Wildlife Sanctuary, Pench Wildlife Sanctuary, Ralamanda Wildlife Sanctuary, Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary, Son Ghariyal Wildlife Sanctuary, Sanjay Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary, Singhori Wildlife Sanctuary, Sardarpur Wildlife Sanctuary- famous for Kharmour bird, Sailana Wildlife Sanctuary, Veerangna Durgawati Sanctuary
World Heritage Sites
  • Sanchi stupa, Rock shelter of Bhimbetka, Groups of temples-Khajuraho
Tiger Reserves
  • Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura National Parks
Ramsar Sites
  • Bhoj wetland
  • Diamond, Manganese, Sandstone, Limestone, Copper
  • Khajuraho dance festival, Gana-Gour, Ganga, Dashami, Hareli, Simhastha, Tensen music festival, Chethiyagiri vihara festival, Lokrang festival, Lokranjan festival
Dance Forms
  • Gaur dance, Muria dance, Karma, Bhagoria, Baredi, Ahirai, Naurata, Badhai, Matki
  • Wall paintings/ Bhitti chitras, Chippa bagh/ hand-block printers, Battubai dolls
GI Tags
  • Chanderi Sarees, Leather Toys of Indore, Bagh Prints, Bell Metal Ware of Datia and Tikamgarh, Maheshwar Sarees & Fabrics, Bell Metal Ware of Datia and Tikamgarh (Logo), Leather Toys of Indore (Logo), Ratlami Sev, Bagh Prints of Madhya Pradesh (Logo), Jhabua Kadaknath Black Chicken Meat, Tiger prints


Key Facts

  • A state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau
  • The Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state
  • 3rd-largest state by area 
  • Bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south, Telangana to the southeast and Chhattisgarh to the east, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to the north, and the Indian union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu to the northwest
  • Mumbai is India’s financial and commercial hub
  • Nashik is known as the ‘Wine Capital of India’
  • The Western Ghats(or the Sahyadri Mountain range) provide a physical backbone to the state on the west, while the Satpura Hills along the north and Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri ranges on the east serve as its natural borders
  • long coastline stretching 720 kilometres
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower /Butterfly ·         Indian Giant Squirrel / Yellow-footed green pigeon /Mango Tree /Jarul /Blue Mormon
Geographic regions ·         Konkan is the western coastal region, between the Western Ghats and the sea. Kandesh is the north-western region lying in the valley of the Tapti River.
Climate ·         Tropical climate
Forests /Mangroves ·         Southern Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests

·         Southern Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests

·         Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests

·         Southern Tropical Thorn Forests

·         Littoral and Swamp Forests

·         Harbours significant mangrove, coastal and marine biodiversity

Tribes ·         Pardhi, Kond, Gond, Bhil, Andh, Barda, Bavacha, Bhattra, Bhunjia, Binjhwar, Dhanwar, Dhodia
Protected Areas ·         Melghat TR, Tadoba TR, Pench TR, Sahyadri TR, Nawegaon-Nagzira TR, Bor TR

·         Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary, Bor Wildlife Sanctuary, Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandoli National Park, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary, Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, part of Pench National Park, Navegaon National Park and Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary.

Ramsar Sites ·         Lonar Lake /Crater, Nandur Madhameshwar

·         Lonar Lake was created by a meteorite collision impact during the Pleistocene Epoch. It is one of the four known, hyper-velocity, impact craters in basaltic rock anywhere on Earth

Performing Arts ·         Powada, Bharuds and Gondhals

·         Lavani is popular form of dance

·         Koli dance (as called ‘Koligeete’)

Dams ·         Lonavala Khandala, Radhanagri, Bhandardara Dam, Koyana Dam, Malshej Waterfall, Dhamapur, Amboli Waterfall, Ghodazari Lake, Bhambavli Vajrai
GI Tags ·         Solapur Chaddar, Paithani Sarees and Fabrics, Solapur Terry Towel, Karvath Kati Tussar Sarees And Fabrics, Sangli Turmeric, Alphonso, Jalgaon Banana, Dahanu Gholvad Chikoo, Ambemohar Rice, Bhiwapur Chil, Solapur Pomegranate, Jalgaon Bharit Brinjal, Purandar Fig, Waigaon Turmeric, Jalna Sweet Orange, Beed Custard Apple¸Sangli Raisins, Lasalgaon Onion, Vengurla Cashew, Navapur Tur Dal, Waghya Ghevada, Sindhudurg & Ratnagiri Kokum, Mangalwedha Jowar, Ajara Ghansal Rice, Kolhapur Jaggery, Nashik Grapes, Mahabaleshwar Strawberry, Nashik Valley Wine, Puneri Pagadi, Ajra Ghansal rice, Mars tide


Key Facts

  • a state in northeastern India
  • bounded by the Indian states of Nagalandto the north, Mizoram to the south and Assam to the west.
  • Borders two regions of Myanmar, Sagaing Region to the east and Chin State to the south
  • Major Ethnic Groups- Meitei Pangals(Manipuri Muslims), Naga tribes, Kuki/Zo
  • Long connected the Indian subcontinent and Central Asiato Southeast Asia, China (or East Asia), Siberia (Russia), Micronesia and Polynesia
  • Depending on the altitude of hill ranges, the climatic condition varies from tropical to sub-alpine.
  • The wet forests and the pine forests occur between 900-2700 m above MSL and they together sustain a host of rare and endemic plant and animal life.
  • In addition to ‘Siroi Lily’ which is the only terrestrial lily grown on the hill tops of Siroi hill, Ukhrul, the Hoolock Gibbon, the Sloe Loris, the Clauded Leopard, the Spotted Linshang, Mrs. Hume’s Barbacked Pheasant, Blyths Tragopan, Burmese Pea-Fowl, four different species of Hornbills etc. form only a part of the rich natural fauna of Manipur.
  • However, the most unique is the Sangai the dancing deer. The floating mass of vegetation on the Loktak Lake sustains small herds of this endemic deer which unfortunately has the dubious distinction of being the most threatened Cervid (known as Phumdi) in the World.
  • Other mentionable fauna is Salamander known as ‘Lengwa’ found at the foothill of Siroi in Ukhrul
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Sangai /Nongyeen /Uningthou (Phoebe hainesiana) / Siroi Lily
Tribes ·         Aimol, Angami, Gangte, Koirao, Lamgang, Maring, Monsang, Purum, Ralte, Suhte, Thadou, Zou, Tarao, Kharam
Festivals ·         Lai-Haraoba, Yaoshang (Dol Jatra), Ratha Jatra, Ramjan Eid, KUT (Kuki-chin-Mizo), Gang-Ngai, Chumpha, Christmas, Cheiraoba, Hekru Hidongba, Ningol Chakouba, Lui Ngai Ni, Kwak Jatra
Art & Dance forms ·         Ras Lila, Nupa Pala, Pung Cholom, Maibi dance, Khamba Thoibi dance, Thang-Ta Martial Art Form, Manpuri Classical Dance
Handicrafts ·         Heijing Kharai, Phiruk & Lukmai 


·         Wangkhei, Bamon Kampu, Kongba, Khongman, Utlou
Sports ·         Mukna is a popular form of wrestling

·         Yubi lakpi is a traditional full contact game

·         Oolaobi (Woo-Laobi) is an outdoor game

Rivers ·         Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north
Dams ·         Thoubal Dam, Singda Dam, Khuga Dam, Khoupum Dam
Lakes Loktak Lake

·         The only Floating lake in the world

  • Largest freshwater lake in North -East India
Valley ·         The Dzüko Valley lying on the border of Manipur and Nagaland has a temperate climate.
Protected Areas ·         Keibul Lamjao National Park (Only floating national park of the world)

·         Khongjaingamba Ching WLS

·         Yangoupokpi-Lokchao WLS

Ramsar Site ·         Loktak Lake
GI Tags ·         Shaphee Lanphee, Wangkhei Phee, Moirang Phee, Chak-hao (black rice), Raw /Kachai lemon


Key Facts

  • a state in Northeast India
  • bound to the south by the Bangladeshi divisions of Mymensingh and Sylhet, to the west by the Bangladeshi division of Rangpur, and to the north and east by India’s State of Assam
  • “Scotland of the East”
  • The Meghalaya subtropical forestsecoregion encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south
  • 70% of the state is forested.
  • It consists mainly of Archean rock formations. These rock formations contain rich deposits of valuable minerals like coal, limestone, uranium and sillimanite.
  • The Garos inhabit western Meghalaya, the Khasis in central Meghalaya, and the Jaintias in eastern Meghalaya.
  • Cherrapunji, one of the most popular tourist attractions in Northeast India, is located in Meghalaya and holds the world record for most rain in a calendar month
  • Meghalaya’s turmeric, particularly the variety that is grown in Shangpung in the Jaintia Hills, is considered the best in the world and its curcumine content is as high as 7.5%.
  • Meghalaya is one of the few states in the country with surplus power generation. Industrial units in Meghalaya have the unique privilege of uninterrupted power supply.
  • Neolithic sites discovered so far are located in areas of high elevation such as in Khasi Hills, Garo Hills and neighboring states.
  • Meghalaya is mountainous, the most rain-soaked state of India. The word Meghalaya means, “abode of the clouds”.
  • Nongkhnum Island located in the West Khasi Hills district is the biggest river island in Meghalaya and the second biggest in Asia
  • The highest point in Meghalaya is Shillong Peak, which is a prominent IAF station in the Khasi Hills overlooking the city of Shillong.
  • The highest point in the Garo Hills is Nokrek Peak with an altitude of 1515 m.
  • The Meghalayan forests are considered to be among the richest botanical habitats of Asia.
  • A small portion of the forest area in Meghalaya is under what are known as “sacred groves”. These are small pockets of an ancient forest that have been preserved by the communities for hundreds of years due to religious and cultural beliefs. These forests are reserved for religious rituals and generally remain protected from any exploitation.
  • Baghmara Sanctuary, is the home of the insect-eating pitcher plant Nepenthes khasiana also called “Me’mang Koksi” in local language.
  • Meghalaya is also famous for its large variety of orchids — nearly 325 of them.
  • Of these, the largest variety is found in the Mawsmai, Mawmluh and Sohrarim forests in the Khasi hills.
  • The limestone caves in Meghalaya such as the Siju Cave are home to some of the nation’s rarest bat species.
  • The hoolock gibbon is found in all districts of Meghalaya.
  • Shillong is known as the Scotland of East.
  • Rat Hole mining is done in the state (Recently banned).
  • Ri-Bhoi district is famous for its pineapples.
  • Shillong is also the headquarters of the North Eastern Council (NEC)
  • The practice of creating Living root bridges can be found in Meghalaya.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Clouded Leopard /Hill Myna /Gamhar /Lady Slipper Orchid
Minerals ·         Coal, Limestone, Granite, Clay (China clay, white clay, fire clay), gypsum, phosphorite, glass-sand, base metals, quartz and feldspar.
Rivers ·         The important rivers in the Garo Hills region are Ganol, Daring, Sanda, Bandra, Bugai, Dareng, Simsang, Nitai and the Bhupai. In the central and eastern sections of the plateau, the important rivers are Khri, Umtrew, Digaru, Umiam or Barapani, Kynshi (Jadukata), Umngi, Mawpa, Umiam Khwan, Umngot, Umkhen, Myntdu and Myntang.
Waterfalls ·         Elephant Falls, Shadthum Falls, Weinia falls, Bishop Falls, Nohkalikai Falls, Langshiang Falls and Sweet Falls
Tribes ·         Khasis (largest group) followed by the Garos then the Jaintias.

·         Hajongs, the Biates, the Koches and related Rajbongshis, the Boros, Dimasa, Kuki, Lakhar, Tiwa (Lalung), Karbi, Rabha and Nepali

Protected Areas ·         Balphakram National Park

·         Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, Siju Sanctuary, Baghmara Sanctuary

·         Norkek Biosphere Reserve

Lakes ·         Ward Lake, Umiam Lake
Festivals Garos

·         Den Bilsia, Wangala, Rongchu gala, Mi Amua, Mangona, Grengdik BaA, Jamang Sia, Ja Megapa, Sa Sat Ra Chaka, Ajeaor Ahaoea, Dore Rata Dance, Chambil Mesara, Do’KruSua, Saram Cha’A, A Se Mania or Tata.


·         Behdienkhlam, Laho Dance, Sowing Ritual Ceremony


·         Ka Shad Suk Mynsiem, Ka Pom-Blang Nongkrem, Ka-Shad Shyngwiang-Thangiap, Ka-Shad-Kynjoh Khaskain, Ka Bam Khana Shnong, Umsan Nongkharai, Shad Beh Sier

Art Forms ·         Endi silk is used to make colourful wraps and hawls; baskets known as khokd thugis are commonly woven; cone shaped bamboo rain shields known as knup are also popular.
Dance ·         Nongkrem, Shad Suk, Bahdienkhlam, Lahoo, Dorsegata 
GI Tags ·         Khasi /Cough Mandarin, Memong Narang


Key Facts

  • A state in northeastern India
  • Southernmost landlocked state, sharing borders with three of the Seven Sister States of old Assam, namely Tripura, Assam and Manipur
  • Shares a 722-kilometre (449 mi) border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar
  • In 1959, Mizo Hills was devastated by a great famine known in Mizo history as ‘Mautam Famine’.
  • Slash-and-burn jhum, or shifting cultivation, is the most common form of farming
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) is required for Indian citizen to enter Mizoram
  • Around 50% of the geographical area of Mizoram is under Bamboo cover.
  • The tropic of cancer runs through the state nearly at its middle.
  • Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the southeastern is the highest peak
  • Lies in seismic zone V
  • Biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan (or Kolodyne). It originates in Chin state in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma’s Rakhine state
  • Palak lake is the biggest
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Serow (Saza) / Hume’s Bartailed Pheaasant (Vavu) / Mesual Ferrea/ Nahar (Herhse) / Dancing Girl (Aiting)
Rivers ·         Tlawng, Tut (Gutur), Tuirial (Sonai), Tuivawl, Barak, Koldoyne (Chhimtuipui), Karnaphuli (Khawthlang tuipui)
Tribes ·         Chakma, Garo, Hajong, Lakher, Mikir, Synteng
Protected Areas
  • Murlen National Park, Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) National Park, Dampa Tiger Reserve
  • Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary, Khawnglung Wildlife sanctuary, Lengteng Wildlife sanctuary
  • Tawi Wildlife sanctuary, Thorangtlang Wildlife sanctuary, Pualreng Wildlife sanctuary, Tokalo Wildlife sanctuary
  • Khuangchera Puk, Lamsai Puk, Far Puk, Pukzing Puk, Tluangtea Puk
  • Mim Kut, Pawl Kut, Chapchar Kut, Thalfavang Kut
Dance Forms
  • Cheraw, Khuallam, Chheihlam, Chai
GI Tags
  • Mizo Chilli, Pawndum, Ngotekherh, Hmaram, Tawlhlohpuan, Mizo Puanchei


Key Facts

  • A state in north-eastern India
  • Capital- Kohima
  • bordered by the state of Arunachal Pradesh to the north, Assam to the west, Manipur to the south and the Sagaing Region of Myanmar to the east. 
  • Require Inner Liner Permit (ILP) to enter the state
  • The rare Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii) is a resident of Nagaland.
  • Amur falcons (Falco amurensis) was discovered in Nagaland.
  • Referred to as “Falcon capital of the world”.
  • Orchids & Rhododendrons can be found everywhere.
  • The merits of this wonder grass can be seen in Asia’s largest bamboo pavilion that the Govt. of Nagaland has built in Kisama (the site of the hornbill festival in Kohima district).
  • One of the three states which has a Christian majority (Other two being Manipur and Meghalaya).
  • Hornbill festival is the quite popular annual event of Nagaland. Hornbill festivals are called as festivals of festivals.
  • A 21st century creation of Nagaland is the Hornbill festival, an event which is now getting known globally.
  • Mount Saramati at an elevation of 3,841 metres (12,602 ft) is the state’s highest peak where Naga Hills merge with the Patkai Range in which form the boundary with Burma
  • Home to the bhut jolokia or ghost pepper, one of the hottest chilis in the world
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Mithun / Blyth’s Tragopan / Alder / Kopou (Rhododendron)
Tribes ·         Angami, Khiamniungan, Lotha, Sumi, Ao, Kuki, Phom, Sangtam, Chakhesang, Konyak, Pochury, Yimchungr, Chang, Kachari, Rengma, Zeliang
Climate ·         The evergreen tropical and subtropical forests are found in strategic pockets in the state
Protected Areas
  • Nagaland Zoological Park, Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary, Intanki National, Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary
Important Minerals ·         Coal, limestone, nickel, cobalt, chromium, magnetite, copper, zinc, and recently discovered platinum, petroleum and natural gas
  • Milak, Barak, Dhansiri, oyang, Dikhu, Zungki, Tizu
Sport ·         Aki Kiti or “Sümi kick fighting” is a traditional combat sport
Important Places ·         Mokokchung district famous Moatsu festival

·         Kachari ruins located in Dimapur, Nagaland are the set of dome shaped pillars

GI Tags ·         Chakhesang Shawls, Naga Mircha, Naga Tree Tomato
Tribes Festival
Angami Sekrenyi
Ao Moatsu, Tsungremong
Chakhesang Tsukhenyie, Sekrenyi
Chang Kundanglem, Nuknyu Lem
Dimasa Kachari Bushu Jiba,
Khiamniungan Miu Festival, Tsokum
Konyak Aoleang Monyu, Lao-ong Mo
Kuki Mimkut, Chavang kut
Lotha Tokhü Emong
Phom Monyu, Moha, Bongvum
Pochury Yemshe
Rengma Ngadah
Sangtam Amongmong
Rongmei Gaan-ngai
Sumi Ahuna, Tuluni
Yimchungru Metumniu, Tsungkamniu
Zeliang Hega, Langsimyi/Chaga Gadi, and Mileinyi


Key Facts

  • State located in Eastern India. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population
  • neighbors the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarhto the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south
  • third largest population of Scheduled Tribes
  • The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryanemperor Ashoka (which was again won back from them by king Kharavela) in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha
  • Odisha became the first state to enact the Lokayukta Bill law after the central act was passed in Parliament.
  • World’s highest electrified track (at a height of 7.45 metres for running of Double Stack Container (DSC) goods trains) is situated at Odisha in Jakhapura-Daitari section. Constructed by East Coast Railway of Odisha. Second to this is in China is 6.6 metre and 7.1 meters in the USA.
  • A 23-feet giant Estuarine crocodile in Odisha has been crowned the worlds largest.
  • Largest Brackish Water Lagoon, Chilka lake in Odisha, the largest water body in Asia.
  • Odisha is popular for having 3 mass nesting beaches of rare Olive Ridley Sea Turtles including world’s largest nesting ground of Olive Ridley Sea Turtle, Lepidochelys Olivacea. Largest wetland of Asia (Chilika) now designated as a Ramsar site in Orissa.
  • The largest Lion Safari of India and the only White Tiger Safari in the world are located in the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
  • Hirakud Dam, the fourth largest in the world, is situated at Sambalpur Western Odisha.
  • Sant Bhima Bhoi was a leader of the Mahima sect. Sarala Das, a Hindu Khandayat, was the translator of the epic Mahabharata into Odia. Chaitanya Das was a Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva was the author of the Gita Govinda.
  • Deomali is a mountain peak of the Eastern Ghats is the highest peak in Odisha.
  • Odisha – highest producer of hematite ore. Odisha has 25% of Hematite ore of India.
  • Puri Temple is the only Dharma (pilgrimage) in India where Folk, Shaiva, Sakta, Vaishnava cult of worship is done.
  • River Mahanadi originates from the Amarkantak hills of the Bastar Plateau in Raipur district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The 33 sandstone caves on the Udaygiri and Khandagiri hills in Bhubaneshwar were probably carved under King Kharavela.
  • Wheeler Island has been renamed as Abdul Kalam Island.
  • Odia Language got the Classical language status in 2014.
  • Pattachitra, a form of folk painting of Odisha, is a unique craft.
  • Rajarani Temple and Mukteswar Temple at Bhubaneswar, Biraja Temple at Jajpur, Kichakeswari Temple at Khiching and the temples at Ranipur-Jharial are also a few other examples of Odishan architecture.
  • The Sambalpuri saris and Maniabandhi patas are matchless in their texture and designs.
  • The Lingaraj Temple at Bhubaneswar, Jagannath Temple at Puri and Sun Temple at Konark belonging to the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries respectively stand as silent witnesses to Odishas glorious past
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Sambhar / Blue Jay Indian Roller / Ashwatha or Peepal / Ashoka
Tribes ·         Juang, Kol, Holva, Bhunjia, Parenga, Sabar, Paroja, Bhumia, Khond, Santhals, Savaras, Gonds, Bondas (62 Tribes)
Festivals ·         Chandan Yatra, Snana Yatra and Ratha Yatra

·         Chaitra Parva a festival of Chhou dance

·         Bali Yatra of Cuttack

Rivers ·         Rivers that have a source outside the State (the Subarnarekha, the Brahmani and the Mahanadi).

·         Rivers having a source inside the State (the Budhabalanga, the Baitarini, the Salandi, and the Rushikulya).

·         Rivers having a source inside the Odisha, but flow through other states (the Bahudu, the Vansadhara, and the Nagavali).

·         Rivers having a source inside Odisha, but tributary to rivers which flow through other states (the Machkund, the Sileru, the Kolab, and the Indravati).

  • Chilka Lake (endangered Irrawaddy dolphins)
  • Ansupa Lake, Sara Lake, Kanjia Lake (Sweet water lakes)
  • Barehipani and Joranda (Similipal), Sanaghagara and Badaghagara, Khandadhar (Banei)
  • Khandabaladhar and Rabandhara, Kentamari and Putudi
Protected Areas
  • Bhitarkanika National Park (large population of salt-water crocodiles)
  • Simlipal National Park, Baisipalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Balukhand Konark Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandaka Dampara Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Chilika (Nalaban) Wildlife Sanctuary, Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Gahirmatha (Marine) Wildlife Sanctuary (world’s largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles), Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, Khalasuni Wildlife Sanctuary, Kotagarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary, Lakhari Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Nandankanan Wildlife Sanctuary, Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Simlipal Wildlife Sanctuary, Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary
Ramsar Sites
  • Bhitarkanika Mangroves & Chilika Lake
Mangrove ·         Bhitarkanika, Chilika, Dharma, Mahanadi, Subarnarekha
Minerals ·         Iron ore, chrome ore, manganese ore, limonite, Aluminium and alumina, Ferro-manganese, Keonjhar, chromite, Quartzite, Bauxite, Gold, Pyrophillite and Lime stone etc.

·         It contains a fifth of India’s coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of the chromite.

Dances ·         Ghumura Dance, Chhau dance, Jhumair, Mahari dance, Dalkhai and Gotipua.

·         Odissi classical art forms

GI Tags ·         Kandhamal Haladi, Odisha Rasagola, Orissa Pattachitra, Berhampur Patta (Phoda Kumbha) Saree & Joda, Habaspuri Saree & Fabrics, Bomkai Saree & Fabrics Sambalpuri Bandha Saree & Fabrics, Dhalapathar Parda & Fabrics , Ganjam Kewda Flower & Rooh, Gopalpur Tussar Fabrics, Khandua Saree and Fabrics, Pipli Applique Work, Orissa Pattachitra, Konark Stone carving, Orissa Ikat, Kotpad Handloom fabric


Key Facts

  • A state in northern India-‘Land of Five Rivers
  • bordered by the Indian union territories of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Chandigarh to the east, the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest
  • The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana.
  • Punjabi, the official language of the state. It is written in the Gurmukhi Script.
  • District Ludhiana is known for Woolen Industry.
  • Jalandhar is for Sports goods industry.
  • Kapurthala has Rail coach factory.
  • Mukerian is known for Paper mill.
  • Most of the Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system
  • The southwest of the state is semiarid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. The Shiwalik Hills extend along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas.
  • The city of Amritsar is home to the craft of brass and copper metalwork done by the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, which is enlisted on the UNESCO’s List of Intangible Cultural Heritage
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Blackbuck / BAccipiter Gentills (Baaz) / Shisham / Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus)
Rivers ·         The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are the Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum rivers; the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow
Festivals ·         Lohri, Baisakhi, Gurupurb
Dances ·         Bhangra, Giddha
Art & Crafts ·         Phulkari or flower embroidery; wood inlay of Hoshiarpur on black shisham wood
Protected Areas
  • Takhni Rehmapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Jhajjar-Bachauli Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Bhadson Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Aishwan Wildlife Sanctuary, Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Harike Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Moti Bagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Bhunerheri Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Mehas Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bir Dosanjh Wildlife Sanctuary, Kathlaur Kushlian Wildlife Sanctuary
Ramsar Sites
  • Kanjli, Harike, Ropar, Beas Conservation Reserve, Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve & Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Mataur Lake
GI Tags
  • Phulkari made across Punjab and two districts in Haryana


Key Facts

  • a statein northern India
  • ‘Land of Kings’ or ‘Land of Kingdom’
  • the largest Indian state by areaand the seventh largest by population
  • located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert(also known as the “Great Indian Desert”) and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley.
  • bordered by five other Indian states: Punjabto the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.
  • Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisationat Kalibangan and Balathal, the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan’s only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range and in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park of Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site
  • Jaipur is its Capital City. Jaipur is also the largest city of the state. Jaipur is also known as the “Pink City”.
  • Sambhar Lake is the largest inland saline wetland of India.
  • The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district.
  • The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia, and other trees.
  • Rajasthan is the largest producer of barley, mustard, pearl millet, coriander, fenugreek and guar in India. Rajasthan produces over 72% of guar of the world and 60% of India’s barley.
State Animal /Bird / Tree / Flower ·         Camel, Chinkara / Godawan or Great Indian Bustard / Khejru (Prosopis Cineraria) /Rohida
Rivers ·         Luni, Banas, Kali, Sindh, Chambal
Tribes ·         Bheel, Garasia, Dhanka
Soils ·         Sandy, Saline, Alkaline, Chalky, Clay, Loamy, Black Lava, Nitrogenous soils
Protected Areas
  • Desert National Park, Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Ranthambhore National Park
  • Sariska National Park, Bandh Baratha Wildlife Sanctuary, Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bhensrodgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary, Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Jamwa Ramgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kailadevi Wildlife Sanctuary, Kesarbagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary, Nahargarh Wildlife Sanctuary, National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Phulwari Ki Nal Wildlife Sanctuary, Ramgarh Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary, Ramsagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary, Sawaimadhopur Wildlife Sanctuary, Sawai Man Singh Wildlife Sanctuary, Shergarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary, Tal Chhapper Wildlife Sanctuary, Todgarh Raoli Wildlife Sanctuary, Van Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary
Ramsar Sites
  • Keoladeo National Park, Sambhar lake 
  • Camel Festival, Nagaur Fair, Mewar Festival, Gangaur Festival, Kaila Devi Fair
  • Manganiyar and Langa communities from Rajasthan are notable for their folk music. Kathputli, Bhopa, Chang, Teratali, Ghindr, Gair dance, Kachchhi Ghori, and Tejaji
Art Forms
  • Gota Patti (main), Bagaru prints, Sanganer prints, and Zari embroidery
  • Miniature, Phad, Kajali, Gemstone 
  • Ana Sagar, Fateh Sagar, Gadsisar, Jaisamand, Kaylana, Nakki-Lake-Mount-Abu, Pichola, Pushkar, Rajsamand, Sambhar, Sardar Samand
GI Tags
  • Kota Doria, Blue Pottery of Jaipur, Molela Clay Work, Kathputlis of Rajasthan, Bikaneri Bhujia Kota Doria (Logo), Bagru Hand Block Print, Thewa Art Work, Makrana Marble, Molela Clay Work, Pokaran Pottery, Sanganeri Hand Block Print, Khijuriya sweets


Key Facts

  • a statein northeastern India.
  • Sikkim’s capitaland largest city is Gangtok
  • borders the Tibet Autonomous Regionof China in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, and West Bengal in the south
  • close to India’s Siliguri Corridornear Bangladesh.
  • least populous and second smallestamong the Indian states
  • Alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth
  • Almost 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park – a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • The Buddhist saint Padmasambhava, also known as Guru Rinpoche, is said to have passed through the land in the 8th
  • Nathu La pass is the key geographical feature of this state. Nathu La pass is a part of the ancient Silk Route which once was an important trade route connecting India with the far reaches of Tibet. This pass was closely followed by the India China war of 1962.
  • River Tista and its tributaries flow through the state from north to south. River Tista is the main waterway of Sikkim.
  • The Sikkim state boasts about its 5 major and numerous others hot water springs.
  • These hot springs are known for their medicinal & therapeutic reasons.
  • Some of the important hot springs are at Borang, Ralang and Yumey Samdong.
  • Ban Jhakri waterfalls which are located near Gangtok is a major tourist attraction.
  • Sikkim is known for its rich biodiversity and is the land known for more than 500 different species of Orchids, 11 Oak species, 23 different varieties of Bamboo trees and over 400 different medicinal plants.
  • More than 81 % area is forest and it has trees such as sals, figs, bananas at lower elevations. At higher altitudes, there is an abundance of chair, pine, oaks and maple trees.
  • Khangchendzonga National park is one of the highest national parks in the world and includes World’s third highest mountain Kangchenjunga.
  • Yak and musk deer are the main animals found in Sikkim.
  • Sikkim is the first Indian state known to have implemented organic farming and is called the first organic state.
  • Main agriculture products of Sikkim – Maize, paddy, millet, wheat and barley. Orange, potatoes, apples and cardamom are also produced.
  • Sikkim has the largest area for Cardamom production and also it is the highest producer of large cardamom in India.
  • Sikkim is very rich in many species of orchids.
  • Sikkim Rhubarb (Rheum Nobile) is a huge flowering plant about 2 Mtr maximum height. It is native to Himalayas and Sikkim especially.
  • Rumtek and Phodong monasteries are the most famous religious spots depicting Buddhist culture of Sikkim. Other famous monasteries include – Enchey monastery, Pemayangtse monastery, Phensang monastery and Tashiding monastery.
  • Sikkim is known for Gumpa dance which is performed by Buddhists during the Losar (New year) festival.
  • In Lebanese language, Sikkim is called as Drenjong which means valley of rice.
  • In Bhutan, the Sikkim is called as Beyul Demazong which means hidden valley of rice. In ancient times Sikkim was also called as Indrakil which means garden of Lord Indra.
  • Blue Sheep also known as Baharal, occupy one of the highest ecological niches in the world. The Green Lake basin and also the area around the Doukia Pass.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Red Panda / Blood Pheasant / Rhododendron / Nobile orchid
River ·         Lachung, Rangeet, Tista
Tribes ·         Limboo, Bhutia, Tamang, Lepcha
Protected Areas ·         Kanchendzonga National Park (KNP), Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary, Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary, Singba Rhododendron Sanctuary, Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, Varsey Rhododendron Sanctuary
Lakes ·         Tsomgo, Menmecho, Lampokari, Khecheopalri, Gurudongmar
Hot Springs ·         Yumthang Hot Spring, Yume Samdong Hot Spring, Reshi Hot Spring, Borong Cha-chu Hot Spring, Ralong Cha-chu Hot Spring
Passes ·         Nathu La, Jelep La, Dingkia
Festivals ·         Losar, Saga Dawa, Lhabab Duechen, Drupka Teshi and Bhumchu are among the Buddhist festivals

·         Traditional local festivals, such as Maghe Sankranti, Sakela, Chasok Tangnam and Bhimsen Puja

Languages ·         Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newar, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang
GI Tags ·         Sikkim Large Cardamom / Dalle Khursani
Caves ·         Sikkim has Four Great Holy Caves – ‘Phug Chen Zhi’, which are included in ‘gNas-chen-InGa’ (Paanch Dhaam) of Sikkim. These Caves are located at four cardinal directions of Tashiding (West Sikkim), namely –Sharchog Beyphug in the East, Lho Kando Sangphug in the South, Nub Dechenphug in the West and Jhang Lhari Nyingphug in the North. Tashiding, according to Holy text, is the Navel point of “Bayul Demajong”, and is considered as the 5th Dhaam of this Holy Land.
Monasteries ·         Pemayangste, Tashiding, Rumtek, Enchey, Phensang, Ralong, Phodang, Tolung, Labrang Palden Phuntsok Monastery


Key Facts

  • a state in southern India
  • capital and largest city is Chennai
  • bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south
  • Three great empires – Chera, Chola and Pandyan empires
  • Tamil Nadu contributes to 60 per cent of the tannery industry in India.
  • Kanyakumari is the southernmost tip of Indian Peninsula and meeting point of Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean
  • Tamil Nadu ranks first in Angiosperm diversity in Indian State.
  • Mamallapuram is a group of rock cut monuments and temples carved between 7th and 8th centuries AD in Mahabalipuram.
  • The magnificent Meenakshi temple at Madurai was built by the Pandyas.
  • Tamil is the first Indian Language to attain Classical Language Status
  • Tamil Nadu is often referred to as ‘a land of temples and Tamils are proud of the religious traditions and follow them strictly.
  • The World’s First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara temple at Tanjavur in Tamil Nadu.
  • Classical form of dance Bharata Natyam
  • Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for the Tamil language, the Tolkappiyam.
  • Notable example of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar.
  • The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is roughly dated from ca. 300 BCE – 300 CE.
  • This state is the largest producer of banana, turmeric, tapioca and second largest producer of Mango, Coconut and groundnut.
  • Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states.
  • Tamil Nadu accounts for 60 per cent of leather tanning capacity in India.
  • Tamil Nadu is one of the leading states in the textile sector and it houses the country’s largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India.
  • The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka.
  • The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the southwest of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats
State Animal /Bird /Tree / Flower ·         Nilgiri tahr / Emerald dove / Palmera Palm / Gloriosa Lily
Rivers ·         Cheyyar, Cauvery, Meyar, Ponnaiyar, Chittar, Tamraparani, Bhavani
Tribes ·         Irulas, Kotas, Kaniyan, Kotas, Kanikkaran, Badagas, Koraga, Todas
Lakes ·         Ooty lake, Red hills lake, Kaliveli lake, Chembarambakkam lake, Sholavaram lake
Protected Areas ·         The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Agasthiyamalai Biosphere Reserve, Indira Gandhi /Anamalai National Park, Mudumalai National Park, Mukurthi National Park, Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park, Guindy National Park, Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary, Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary, Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Kalakaadu Mudanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary, Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary, Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary
Biosphere Reserve ·         Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve – 1st BR of India

·         Agasthyamalai

Tiger Reserve ·         Anamalai, Kalakad Mundanthurai, Satyamangalam
Dams Rivers
Aliyar Dam Aliyar River
Amaravathi Dam Amaravati River
Bhavanisagar Dam Bhavani River
Grand Anicut Dam (Kallanai) Cauvery River
Mettur Dam Cauvery River
Sathanur Dam Pennaiyaru River
Pechiparai Dam Kodayar River
Mukkadal Dam Vambaru River
Vaigai Dam Vaigai River
Festivals ·         Pongal (harvest festival), Chithirai festival, Adipperukku, Mamallapuram, Natyanjali dance festival, Mahamagam festival, Kanthuri festival, Velankanni festival, Navarathiri, Karthigal Deepam
Dances ·         Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Odissi

·         Kolattam, Karagam, and Mayilattam are Folk Dances

Art & Crafts ·         Tanjore style of painting; Kanchipuram silk; Toda women embroider geometrical patterns on shawl, called poothkuli
GI Tags ·         Kancheepuram Silk, Bhavani Jamakkalam, Madurai Sungudi, Arani Silk, Kovai Kora Cotton Sarees, Salem Silk know as Salem Venpattu, Salem Fabric, Srivilliputtur Palkova, Stone carvings of Mahabalipuram, Thanjavur Art Plate (Logo), , Swamimalai Bronze Icons (Logo), Temple Jewelery of Nagercoil (Logo), Panchamrit of Palani Murugan Temple, Pathamadai mat, Kovilpatti Kadlai Mittai, Coimbatore Wet Grinder, Virupakshi Hill Banana, Madurai Malli, Pattamadai Pai (“Pattamadai Mat”) , Nachiarkoil Kuthuvilakku (“Nachiarkoil Lamp”), Chettinad Kottan, Toda Embroidery, Dindigul Locks, Kandangi Saree
Sports ·         Kabbadi, also known as Sadugudu

·         Silambam- traditional sports

·         Jallikatu- bull taming sport 

UNESCO world heritage Sites ·         Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram, Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Nilgiri Mountain Railways
Ramsar Sites ·         Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary


Key Facts

  • a statein northeastern India
  • bordered by Bangladeshto the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east.
  • Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Atharamura, Longtharai, Shakhanand Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys
  • Agartala, the capital, is located on a plain to the west.
  • The state has a tropical savanna climate, and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon
  • highest number of primate species found in any Indian state.
  • Two types of moist deciduous forests comprise majority of the vegetation: moist deciduous mixed forest and Sal (Shorea robusta)-predominant forest
  • hosts three different types of ecosystems: mountain, forest and freshwater
  • Lake Rudrsagar is the only lake in eastern India with a palace in it
  • Neermahal is a cultural Water Palace of this state.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Phayre’s Langur (Trachypithecus phayrei) / Green Imperial Pigeon (Ducula aenea) / Agar (Aquilaria malaccensis) / Nageswar (Mesua Ferrea)
Rivers ·         Gomti, Khowai, Howrah, Longai, Dhalai, Muhuri, Feni, Manu, Burima
Tribes ·         Bhil, Bhutia, Riang, Santal, Uchai, Orang, Noatia, Kuki, Khasia, Jamatia, Garo, Chakma
Protected Areas ·         Sipahijola, Gumti, Rowa and Trishna wildlife sanctuaries

·         Clouded Leopard National Park and Rajbari National Park

·         Gumti is also an Important Bird Area

Ramsar Sites ·         Rudrasagar Lake
Festivals ·         Garia, Kharchi, Tirthamukh Mela, Bijhu, Owa
Folk Dance ·         Hozagiri dance of Reang community, Garia, Jhum, Maimita, Masak Sumani and Lebang boomani of Tripuri community

·         Bijhu dance of Chakma community, Cheraw and Welcome dances of Lusai community Hai-Hak dance of Malsum community

·         Wangala dance of Garo Community, Sangraiaka, Chimithang, Padisha and Abhangma dances of Mog community

·         Garia dances of Kalai and Jamatia communities, Gajan, Dhamail Sari and Rabindra dances

·         Basanta Rash and Pung chalam dances

Musical Instruments ·         ‘Khamb (Drum)’, Bamboo flute, ‘Lebang,’, ‘Sarinda’, ‘Do- Tara’, and ‘Khengrong’
GI Tags ·         Pineapple, the queen of Tripura


Key Facts

  • a state in northern India
  • capital being Lucknow and financial & industrial capital being Kanpur
  • There are 75 districts in Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur being the largest city in the state.
  • most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world
  • bordered by Rajasthanto the west, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and an international border with Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, and touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast.
  • The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and Yamuna, join at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad and flow further east as Ganges. Other prominent rivers are Gomti and Saryu.
  • home to most of the mainstream political entities that have existed in ancient and medieval India including Maurya Empire, Harsha Empire, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire
  • Chalk drawings or dark red drawings by primitive men are extensively found in the Vindhyan ranges of Mirzapur districts.
  • The ancient Dhamek Stupa marks the spot where Buddha gave his first sermon in Sarnath.
  • Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal for his dead wife Mumtaz Mahal; the tomb took 22 years to build.
  • Ayodhya is known for the birthplace of Lord Rama
  • Aligarh is famous for its lock industry
  • The Lion breeding center and LION safari are situated on the outskirt of Etawah City.
  • UP is one of the largest producers of Potato, Sugarcane, and wheat.
  • Atomic power station-Narora.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Swamp deer /Sarus Crane /Ashoka /Palash
Climate ·         Humid subtropical climate
Minerals ·         Limestone, Dolomite, Glass-sand, Marble, Bauxite, Non-Plastic fireclay, Uranium, Barytes, Edalusite
Rivers ·         Ganges, Yamuna, Gomti, Chambal, Ramganga, Sarayu, Son River, Tamsa River, Ken River, Betwa River, Karmanasa River, Sharda, and Karnali.
Lakes ·         Keetham Lake, Nachan Tal, Belasagar Lake, Barua Sagar Tal, Sheikha Jheel
Vegetation ·         Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests, Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorny Forests
Protected Areas ·         Dudhwa National Park, Pilibhit Tiger reserve, Amangarh Tiger Reserve

·         Bakhira Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, Chandra Prabha Sanctuary, Hastinapur Sanctuary, Kaimoor Sanctuary, and Okhla Sanctuary, Ishanpur Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, Bakhihastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Kra Wildlife Sanctuary, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaimoor Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahavir Swami Wildlife Sanctuary, Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary, Vijai Sagar Sanctuary, Pavarti Agra Bird Sanctuary, Surha taal Bird Sanctuary, Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary

  • Bhimrao Ambedkar Bird Sanctuary
Ramsar Sites ·         Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary, Saman Bird Sanctuary, Samaspur Bird Sanctuary, Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Sarsai Nawar Jheel, Upper Ganga river, Sur Sarovar Lake (Highest Ramsar Sites in India-Total 08)
Dance ·         Kathak (classical dance form)

·         Charkula, Karma, Pandav, Paidanda, Tharu, Dhobia, Raee and Shaira

Folk Songs ·         Birha, Chaiti, Kajri, Phag, Rasia, Aalha, Puran, Bhagat, Bhartihari
Art Forms ·         Chikankari or shadow-work embroidery; Baranasi brocades which include the zari, amru and abrawan; Sanjhi or the art of cutting paper stencils.
Festivals ·         Diwali, Rama Navami,  Kumbh Mela, Lath mar Holi, Ganga Mahotsav,  Bārah Wafāṭ, Chhath puja, Lucknow Mahotsav, Moharram, Kabob etc
GI Tags ·         Gorakhpur Terracotta , Chunar Balua Patthar, Varanasi Soft Stone Jali Work, Ghazipur Wallhanging, Varanasi Glass beads, Banaras Metal Repouse Craft, Nizamabad Black Pottery, Mirzapur Handmade Dari, Varanasi Wooden Lacquerware & Toys, Banaras Gulabi Meenakari Craft, Khurja Pottery, Meerut Scissors, Saharanpur Wood Craft, Moradabad Metal Craft, Kanpur Saddlery , Kannauj Perfume, Firozabad Glass, Kalanamak Rice, Banaras Brocades and Sarees (Logo), Lucknow Zardozi, Farrukhabad Prints, Agra Durrie, Hand Made Carpet of Bhadohi, Banaras Brocades and Sarees, Mango Malihabadi Dusseheri, Lucknow Chikan Craft, Allahabad Surkha Guava, Varanasi Kachmani, Meerut Scissors
World Heritage Sites ·         Agra fort, Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri


Key Facts

  • State in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the “Devabhumi” (literally “Land of the Gods”
  • Borders the Tibet Autonomous Regionof China to the north; the Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal to the east; the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west.
  • Divided into two divisions, Garhwaland Kumaon with a total of 13 districts
  • Winter capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, which is a rail head. Gairsain, a town in Chamoli districtis the summer capital of Uttarakhand
  • Known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabarand the Terai
  • During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Katyuri rulersof Kumaon also known as ‘Kurmanchal Kingdom’
  • The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, the Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, the Chandra and Panwars and the British have ruled it in turns.
  • Two of the most important rivers in Hinduism originate in the glaciers of Uttarakhand, the Gangesat Gangotri and the Yamuna at Yamunotri.
  • hosts the Bengal tigerin Jim Corbett National Park, the oldest national park of the Indian subcontinent.
  • World’s highest (altitude) road, the Mana Pass is in Uttarakhand. Though civilians are not allowed.
  • The Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks, a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site located in the upper expanses of Bhyundar Ganga near Joshimath in Gharwal region
  • Rishikesh is popularly known as the Yoga Capital of the World.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower ·         Himalayan Musk deer /Himalayan Monal /Burans /Brahm Kamal
  • Alaknanda River, Asan Barrage, Baur River, Bhagirathi River
  • Bhilangna River, Darma River, Gola River, Gori Ganga
  • Jahnavi River, River Pushpawati, Saraswati River (Uttarakhand), Sharda River, Song river (Dehradun)
  • Tons River, Vasukiganga River, Yamuna
Tribes ·         Raji, Tharu, Buska, Jaunsari, Bhotia
Languages ·         Gharwali, Kumaoni, Hindi

·         Indo-Aryan languages, like Buksa Tharu and Rana Tharu (of Udham Singh Nagar district in the south-east), Mahasu Pahari (found in Uttarkashi in the north-west), and Doteli

Mountains ·         Nanda Devi, Panchchuli, Trishul, Bhagirathi, Neelkanth, Gaumukh, Chaukhamba

·         Indigenous Sino-Tibetan languages-Jad, Rongpo, Rangas, Kulung, Tibetan

Passes ·         Nitipass-India-Tibet

·         Lipulekh-India-Tibet

Minerals ·         Limestone, Marble, Rock Phosphate, Dolomite, Magnesite, Copper, Gypsum
Protected Areas
  • Corbett National Park, Gangotri National Park, Govind National Park, Nanda Devi National Park
  • Rajaji National Park, Valley of Flowers National Park, Askot Musk Deer Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary, Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary, Govind Pashu Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Mussoorie Wildlife Sanctuary, Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary
Ramsar Sites
  • Asan Barrage (Asan Conservation Reserve)
Arts & Crafts ·         Mahasu Devta Temple at Hanol is notable for its traditional wooden architecture.

·         Abhisarika Nayika, a painting

Dance forms ·         Langvir Nritya is a dance form for males that resembles gymnastic movements.

·         Barada Nati folk dance is another dance of Jaunsar-Bawar, which is practised during some religious festivals

·         Hurka Baul, Jhora-Chanchri, Chhapeli, Thadya, Jhumaila, Pandav, Chauphula, and Chholiya

Folk Songs ·         Mangal, Basanti, Khuder and Chhopati
Festivals ·         The festivals of Kumbh Mela at Haridwar, Ramlila, Ramman of Garhwal, the traditions of Vedic chantings and Yoga are included in the list of Intangible cultural heritage of the UNESCO
GI Tags ·         Tejpatta (Cinnamomum tamala) or Indian bay leaf
World Heritage Sites ·         Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks


Key Facts

  • a statein the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal.
  • fourth-most populous state and the fourteenth-largest state by area
  • borders Bangladeshin the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north.
  • It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkimand Assam.
  • The state capital is Kolkata
  • includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh regionand the coastal Sundarbans
  • Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period.
  • The region was part of several ancient pan−Indian empires, including the Vangas, Mauryans, and the Guptas.
  • The citadel of Gauḍaserved as the capital of the Gauḍa Kingdom, the Pala Empire, and the Sena Empire. 
  • The Nanda Dynasty was the first historical state to unify all of Bengal under Indo-Aryan rule.
  • Stone age tools dating back 20000 years have been excavated in the state.
  • The foot hill of the Himalayan region is known as the Terrain region in West Bengal. This region is famous the world over for tea plantation.
  • The sub-Himalayan tract, known as the West Bengal Duars, or Western Duars, is a part of the Tarai lowland belt between the Himalayas and the plain.
  • North of the Duars, the Himalayan mountain ranges rise abruptly along the northern boundary of the state.
  • Mount Kanchenjunga, actually located in adjacent Sikkim, dominates the landscape of the area, particularly in Darjiling (Darjeeling).
  • Coal constitutes 99% of the minerals extracted in West Bengal; fireclay, china clay, limestone, copper, iron, wolfram, manganese and dolomite are mined in small quantities.
  • The most notable fact about Shantiniketan located in Birbhum district is that one enjoys Baul music here. Baul is a folk form of music that is practiced here widely by Baul fakirs or saints.
  • 3rd largest state for coal production, accounting for about half of India’s total.
  • West Bengal is the only Indian state which has The Himalayas, The Duars Forests, the vast beaches of The Bay of Bengal, and innumerable rivers. This is called “Accident of Geography”.
  • The Sundarbans form the largest mangrove forest in the world and are most notably known for housing the majestic and highly endangered species of Royal Bengal tigers.
  • Kolkata was the capital of British India from 1756 to 1911, because of which you find British monuments in every part of the city.
  • Damodar, another tributary of the Ganges and once known as the “Sorrow of Bengal” 
  • West Bengal has been home to many great literary maestros such as Rabindranath Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Michael Madhusudan Dutta, and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay.
State Animal /Bird /Tree /Flower /Fruit/ Fish ·         Fishing Cat /White-throated Kingfisher/Alstonia scholaris – Chatim tree/Night-flowering Jasmine /Jackfruit /Ilish
Climate ·         Varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north
Rivers ·         The main river in West Bengal is the Ganges, which divides into two branches. One branch enters Bangladesh as the Padma, or Pôdda, while the other flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River.

·         The Farakka barrage over the Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal. Its water flow management has been a source of lingering dispute between India and Bangladesh.

·         The Teesta, Torsa, Jaldhaka and Mahananda rivers are in the northern hilly region. The western plateau region has rivers like the Damodar, Ajay and Kangsabati

Tribes ·         Kora, Ho, Meu, Tamang, Lohara, Chero, Mahli, Malpahariya
Protected Areas
  • Buxa National Park, Gorumara National Park, Neora Valley National Park, Singalila National Park, Sunderban National Park, Jaldapara National Park, Ballavpur WLS
  • Bethuadahari WLS, Bibhuti Bhusan WLS, Buxa WLS, Chapramari WLS, Chintamani Kar Bird Sanctuary, Haliday Island WLS, Jorepokhri Salamander WLS, Lothian Island WLS
  • Mahananda WLS, Raiganj WLS, Ramnabagan WLS, Sajnakhali WLS, Senchal WLS, West Sunderban WLS
Ramsar Sites
  • East Kolkata Wetlands, Sunderban Wetland
  • New Moore, Ghoramara Island, Henry Island, Jambudwip, Lohachaua Island, Nayachar Island, Sagar Island
  • Durga Puja, Kalpataru Utsab, Bhai Phonta, Kali Puja etc
  • Chau dance of Purulia is a rare form of mask dance, Gambhira Dance, Brita Dance, Santhal Dance, Tusu Dance, Lathi Dance
World Heritage Sites
  • Darjeeling Himalayan Railway 
Biosphere Reserves
  • Sundarbans
  • Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs
  • Mangalkavya, a collection of Hindu narrative poetry
  • Thakurmar Jhuli, a collection of Bengali folk and fairy tales
  • Shreekrishna Kirtana, a pastoral Vaishnava drama
Folk Music Forms
  • Gombhira and Bhawaiya
  • Folk music in West Bengal is often accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument.
GI Tags
  • Darjeeling Tea (word and logo-1st GI Tag of India), Santipore Saree, Baluchari Saree, Dhaniakhali Saree, Tulaipanji rice, Govindbhog rice, Vardhman Sitabhog, Vardhman Mihidana, Bangalirasgulla, Nakshi Kantha, Santiniketan Leather Goods, Malda Laxman Bhog Mango, Malda Khirsapati (Himsagar) Mango, Malda Fazli Mango, Joynagar Moa, Bankura Panchmura Terracotta Craft, Bengal Patachitra, Purulia Chau Mask, Wooden Mask of Kushmandi, Madur kathi


Key Facts

  • a union territoryof India consisting of 572 islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea
  • north of Acehin Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Myanmar by the Andaman Sea
  • separated by the 150 km wide Ten Degree Channel
  • The territory’s capital is the city of Port Blair.
  • The Andaman Islands are also home to the Sentinelese people, an uncontacted tribe.
  • The Sentinelese might be the only people currently known to not have reached further than a Paleolithic level of technology
  • The highest point is located in North Andaman Island is Saddle Peak
  • Recently, Ross Island was renamed as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island; Neil Island as Shaheed Island; and Havelock Islandas Swaraj Island.
  • Tropical rainforest canopy, made of a mixed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmar, Malaysian
  • Besides the Great Andamanese, the other four PVTGs are Jarawas, Onges, Sentinelese and Shorn Pens.
  • Among the five, the Great Andamanese are the only ones who visit and live in the capital city of Port Blair frequently.
  • The PVTGs are communities that are more vulnerable among tribal groups, and are put under a special category by the government of India.
  • While five among the nine Great Andamanese who are infected are residents of Port Blair, four others live in the remote Strait Island that is reserved for the tribe.
  • Strait Island is an island of the Andaman Islands. It belongs to the North and Middle Andaman administrative district, part of the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Survival International, is a human rights organisation campaigning for the rights of tribes.
  • The Andaman and Nicobars are separated by the Ten Degree Channel which is 150 Kms.
  • Dugong, the gentle sea cow is the state animal
  • Andaman Padauk is the state tree
  • Andaman Wood Pigeon is the state bird
  • The Sentinelese is an endangered hunter-gatherer tribe living on the North Sentinel Island of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. They are considered as the most isolated Palaeolithic tribes of the world.
  • North Sentinel Island is home to one of the most isolated Palaeolithic tribes of the world.
  • Barren Island of the Andaman & Nicobar Island group is the only active volcano not just in India but the whole of South Asia.
  • Indira Point in Great Nicobar is the Southern-most point while East Island in North Andaman is the Northern-most Island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The Great Andamanese, Jarawa, Onge & Sentineles, all of Negrito Origin, in the Andaman group of Islands, while the tribes in the Nicobar Islands are the Nicobarese and the Shompen, both of Mongoloid Stock.


  • Goup of islands in the Arabian sea
  • administered as a union territoryand district of India
  • known as the Laccadive Islands
  • Kavarattiserves as the capital of the Union Territory and the region comes under the jurisdiction of Kerala High Court
  • northernmost of the Lakshadweep–Maldives–Chagos group of islands, which are the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, the Chagos-Lakshadweep Ridge
  • The main islands are Kavaratti, Agatti, Minicoy, and Amini.
  • Symbols of Lakshadweep: Tree-Bread fruit (Artocarpus incisa), Bird-Brown noddy(Anous stolidus), Mammal-Butterfly fish (Chaetodon falcula)
  • These islands were earlier known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands.
  • The name Lakshadweep was adopted on 1 November 1973
  • These islands are separated from one another by very narrow straits.
  • The Lakshadweep Islands group is a Union Territory administered by the President through a Lt. Governor.
  • It is the smallest Union Territory of India.
  • Kavaratti is the administrative capital of the Lakshadweep Islands. It is also the principal town of the Union Territory.
  • It is a uni-district Union Territory and is comprised of 12 atolls, three reefs, five submerged banks, and ten inhabited islands.
  • The name Lakshadweep in Malayalam and Sanskrit means ‘a hundred thousand islands’.
  • The Lakshadweep Islands are located at a distance of 280 km to 480 km off the Kerala coast.
  • These islands are a part of Reunion Hotspot volcanism.
  • The entire Lakshadweep islands group is made up of coral deposits.
  • Fishing is the main occupation on which livelihoods of many people depend.
  • The Lakshadweep islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles, and boulders.
  • Minicoy Island, located to the south of the nine-degree channel is the largest island among the Lakshadweep group.
  • 8 Degree Channel (8 degrees north latitude) separates islands of Minicoy and Maldives.
  • 9 Degree Channel (9 degrees north latitude) separates the island of Minicoy from the main Lakshadweep archipelago.
  • In the Lakshadweep region, there is an absence of forests.
  • Pitti Island is an important breeding place for sea turtles and for a number of pelagic birds such as the brown noddy, lesser crested tern and greater crested tern. The Pitti island has been declared a bird sanctuary.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep islands have recently been named as the new “hope spots” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Mission Blue.


  • A union territoryin western India
  • territory is made up of four separate geographical entities Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Damanand the island of Diu
  • All four areas were part of Portuguese Indiawith the capital in Velha Goa
  • administered as a union territoryof India by virtue of Article 240 (2) of the Constitution of India.
  • The President of Indiaappoints an administrator to administer the territory on behalf of the central Government of India.
  • The central government may appoint advisers to assist the administrator with his duties.
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli landlocked between Gujaratto the north and Maharashtra to the south,
    • Silvassais the administrative headquarters
    • lies within the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion, characterised by forests of teak(Tectona grandis) and other dry-season deciduous trees
    • The major produce is khair wood and general timber. 
    • Prominent Tribals-Dhodia, Kokna and Warli, with small groups of Koli, Kathodi, Naika, and Dubla
  • Daman and Diu
    • separated by the Gulf of Khambhat
    • The state of Gujaratand the Arabian Sea bordered the territory
    • Dubla, Dhodia, Varli, Naikda and Siddi


Key Facts

  • Officially the National Capital Territory(NCTof Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India
  • bordered by the state of Haryanaon three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east.
  • served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires, most notably the Pandavas, the Tomars, the Delhi Sultanateand the Mughals.
  • Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge.
    • The Yamuna Riverwas the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods.
    • The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi.
    • The Hindon Riverseparates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi.
    • The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Rangein the south and encircles the west, northeast, and northwest parts of the city.
  • included in India’s seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes
  • Delhi features a dry-winter humid subtropical climate bordering a hot semi-arid climate
  • Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutub Minarand Humayun’s Tomb—are located
  • Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar—an 18th-century astronomical observatory—and the Purana Qila—a 16th-century fortress.
  • Protected Areas: National Zoological Park, Sultanpur National Park, Kalesar National Park located in the Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana near Delhi, Asola Bhati (Indira Priyadarshini) Wildlife Sanctuary
  • State Symbols
    • Animal-Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)
    • Bird-House sparrow (Passer domesticus)
    • Flower-Alfa Alfa
    • Tree-Flamboyant


Key Facts

  • region administered by Indiaas a union territory
  • bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Regionto the east, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh to the south, both the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistan-administered Gilgit-Baltistan to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north
  • extends from the Siachen Glacierin the Karakoram range to the north to the main Great Himalayas to the south
  • eastern end, consisting of the uninhabited Aksai Chinplains, is claimed by the Indian Government as part of Ladakh, and has been under Chinese control since 1962
  • The Leh districtcontains the Indus, Shyok and Nubra river valleys.
  • The Kargil districtcontains the Suru, Dras and Zanskar river valleys.
  • mountain slopes support the pastoral Changpa
  • largestand the second least populous union territory
  • extends from the Himalayanto the Kunlun Ranges and includes the upper Indus River valley
  • The peaks in the Ladakh Range are at a medium altitude close to the Zoji-laand increase toward southeast, culminating in the twin summits of Nun-Kun
  • Kargil, the only town in the Suru valley, is the second most important town in Ladakh
  • The Zangskar valley lies in the troughs of the Stod and the Lungnak rivers.
  • The Siachen Glacieris in the eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border.
  • The Pangong rangeruns parallel to the Ladakh Range for about 100 km northwest from Chushul along the southern shore of the Pangong Lake.
  • The predominant mother-tongue in Leh district is Bauti, a Tibetan language
  • The Purkhiis the predominant mother-tongue of Kargil district
  • Hemis monastery, a leading centre of the Drukpatradition of Buddhism, holds an annual masked dance festival, as do all major Ladakhi monasteries
  • Tso Moriri or Lake Moriri or “Mountain Lake”, is a lake in the ChangthangPlateau (literally: northern plains) in Ladakh in Northern India. The lake and surrounding area are protected as the Tso Moriri Wetland Conservation Reserve and also a Ramsar site
  • The Tso Kar or Tsho kar is a fluctuating salt lakeknown for its size and depth situated in the Rupshu Plateau and valley in the southern part of Ladakh in India. It is also recognised as India’s 42nd Ramsar site.
  • Flora & Fauna
    • The bharalor blue sheep is the most abundant mountain ungulate
    • The Asiatic ibexis a very elegant mountain goat that is distributed in the western part of Ladakh.
    • The Ladakhi Urial is another unique mountain sheep
    • The Tibetan argali or Nyan is the largest wild sheep in the world
    • The endangered Tibetan antelope, known as chiru in Indian English, or Ladakhi tsos, has traditionally been hunted for its wool (shahtoosh) which is a natural fibre of the finest quality
    • Home to the Tibetan gazelle, which inhabits the vast rangelands in eastern Ladakh bordering Tibet
    • The kiang, or Tibetan wild ass, is common in the grasslands of Changthang
      • The Hemis High Altitude National Parkin central Ladakh is an especially good habitat for this predator
    • The Eurasian lynx, is another rare cat that preys on smaller herbivores in Ladakh.
    • The Tibetan wolf, which sometimes preys on the livestock of the Ladakhis, is the most persecuted amongst the predators
    • There are also a few brown bearsin the Suru Valley
    • The Tibetan sand foxhas been discovered in this region
    • Natural vegetation commonly seen along watercourses includes seabuckthorn (Hippophae spp.), wild roses of pink or yellow varieties, tamarisk (Myricaria spp.), caraway, stinging nettles, mint, Physochlaina praealta, and various grasses.